Grapes are grown in greenhouses in regions with adverse climatic conditions for cultivation. The use of the greenhouse contributes to the full growth and development of the vine, and also guarantees a stable harvest of ripe and juicy berries.
Benefits of Greenhouse Grapes
The cultivation of grapes in a protected ground is currently quite in demand, due to a significant number of advantages of this method of growing:
- the possibility of obtaining an early crop compared with growing in open ground;
- more rational use of the planted area with the ability to supplement the vineyard with growing seedlings or early vegetable and green crops, including radishes, salads and strawberries;
- reducing the need to use chemicals to protect grapes from diseases and flying insects;
- comfort when performing work in adverse weather conditions, including cold, gusty wind and precipitation;
- reduced risk of cracking of berries as a result of increased air humidity and under the influence of heavy rains;
- the use of unheated greenhouse constructions contributes to the production of berries with lower cost;
- obtaining a consistently high and more environmentally friendly grape harvest.
In addition, plants grown in greenhouse conditions have higher immunity and are protected from damage by return frosts in the spring.
Greenhouse Design Requirements
In order to get a guaranteed high yield, you should take full responsibility for the selection and purchase of equipment for the greenhouse. For the cultivation of grapes, it is recommended to use polycarbonate-based structures with their installation on a solid strip foundation around which a drainage system is arranged to remove excess water.
High-quality equipment is a prerequisite for the cultivation of vines in greenhouses.
As a rule, factory-made greenhouse constructions already have air vents in the end part, as well as on the roof, which allows for adequate ventilation for a room whose length does not exceed five meters. When using a longer greenhouse design installation of additional windows is required around the perimeter or the installation of a special automated forced ventilation system, which significantly reduces the labor costs of maintenance and is a preventive measure to protect plants from damage by fungal diseases.
Installation of heating equipment in a greenhouse is one of the most costly and time-consuming tasks on arrangement of construction of protected ground for growing grapes. It is recommended to pay attention to infrared outboard heaters, which allow providing a comfortable microclimate to plants with minimal costs.
To heat the soil, it is advisable to use heating cables. As before, the most effective and least costly is the use of water or steam heating in greenhouses.
Equally important for the formation of a quality crop is the provision of irrigated plants for cultivated plants. In order to comply with the regime of irrigation of the vines, it is recommended to equip the greenhouse with a modern drip irrigation system, which will not only provide the root system of plants with moisture necessary for growth and development, but also is a convenient device for the dosed application of liquid fertilizers.
Grapes in a greenhouse: growing
Selection of grape varieties for growing in a greenhouse
Not all varieties or new hybrid forms of grapes are suitable for cultivation in greenhouses. The profitability of growing grapes depends on how correctly the variety is selected.
Criterias of choice
Before purchasing, you should carefully inspect all planting material:
- grape seedlings must have a powerful and healthy root system, as well as a developed and green shoot;
- seedlings should be free from any signs of damage or freezing;
- You can not use grape seedlings for planting at the slightest suspicion of defeat by their pests or diseases;
- It is allowed to plant both root plants and grafted seedlings.
In addition, it is recommended to purchase planting material exclusively from trusted, experienced winegrowers or in well-established nurseries.
The best varieties
It is preferable to plant grapes of early or very early ripening in a greenhouse. The most popular grape varieties are:
|Name||Parent line||Ripening period||Features|
|"Korinka Russian"||"Dawn of the North" and "Black Kishmish"||Very early||Tall, productive. Bisexual flowers. Frost resistance -26 ° C. Resistant to mildew, susceptible to oidium.|
|"Laura"||Muscat de Saint-Valle and Muscat of Hamburg + Husayn||Very early ripening period 110-115 days||The flowers are functionally female type, pollinated well. Increased resistance to gray rot and mildew, frost resistance -23 ° C. Cracking of berries is rarely observed.|
|Greenhouse White, or Foster||"Marocain Noir" and "Chasla"||Ripening early||Bisexual flowers. Juicy pulp. The taste is good, refreshing, moderately sweet.|
|Greenhouse Black, or Frankenthal||"Synonym Black" and "Hamburg"||Early ripening||Bisexual flowers. The taste is simple. The berries are large. Affected by fungal diseases.|
|"Memory of Dombkowska"||"Dawn of the North" and "Kishmish unique"||Early ripening||Very productive, resistant to many diseases, extremely frost-resistant.|
|"Irinka"||"CB 20-365" and "Decorative" + a mixture of pollen from raisins||Vegetation lasting 110 - 120 days||Relatively resistant to mildew, oidium, gray rot. Frost resistance -22 ° C.|
|"Alexandria Muscat"||The homeland of the variety is considered to be Arabia.||The growing season is 155 days||One of the oldest known grape varieties. Potentially high but unsustainable yields.|
|"Bulgaria Sustainable" or "Queen of Paris"||"Save Villar 20-473" and "Bulgaria"||Ripening early 115-125 days||Resistance to fungal diseases - 3.0-3.5 points. Resistant to mildew. High yielding.|
|"Arcadia"||"Moldova" and "Cardinal"||Refers to a very early 115-125 days.||Productivity is high. Resistance to mildew increased. Withstands frosts to -21 ° C. Compatible with most rootstocks.|
|Moscow Sustainable||Madeleine Anzhevin and Amursky + Alpha||Early-medium maturity 130-135 days||The variety is resistant to mildew. Frost resistance -28 ° C.|
Rules for planting grapes in a greenhouse
Planting grapes in greenhouse conditions does not have fundamental differences from growing vines in open ground and performed in accordance with the following agrotechnical requirements:
- placement of seedlings is carried out along the side of the greenhouse walls;
- ordinary planting method involves a distance between plants of at least one meter;
- the indent from the foundation base of the greenhouse should be about 0.8 meters;
- the trellis for fixing the vine should be placed with an interval of 35 cm and at a distance of 30 cm from the polycarbonate coating;
- support for the vine should be 35 cm above the standard peg for open ground.
Planting soil should consist of peat, loam and sand in a ratio of 1: 2: 0.5. It is recommended to add 90 g of lime to a mixture in a bucket and mineral fertilizers in accordance with the instructions. Seedlings should be planted in the planting pits at an angle to the trellis at 45 °.
Greenhouse grape care
Care activities are standard. Particular attention is required to such procedures as pollination, irrigation in the absence of a drip irrigation system and feeding.
Greenhouse cultivation of grapes involves the use of manual pollination, which is a mandatory procedure for obtaining ovaries in a protected ground. The procedure is simple and is performed after the flowers are fully opened.
In the middle of the day, you should make gentle but tangible blows to the vine or carry out gentle taps on the flowers with your hand, and transfer the pollen that has fallen on your palm to other flowers. In a greenhouse, the use of cross-type pollination will be appropriate.
If there is no drip irrigation system in the greenhouse design, you will have to use a manual method of irrigation. Use of a hose is allowed.
Grapevine is irrigated about five times in one season. However, depending on the microclimatic conditions created in the greenhouse, the number of irrigations can vary. After irrigation, it is recommended to loosen the soil.
Important! To protect the berries from cracking, do not water abundantly at the ripening stage.
The correct and timely application of fertilizers directly depends on the yield of the vine in the protected ground. A week after planting, plants in the greenhouse should be fed with potash fertilizers. The following dressings are produced according to the following standard scheme:
- the first spring top dressing consists in applying a complex based on 40 g of superphosphate, 30 g of potassium salt and 50 g of nitrogen fertilizers with the addition of “Solution” at the rate of 50 ml per bucket of water under the vine bushes;
- the second top dressing is carried out two weeks before the flowering of grapes and consists in the introduction of fertilizers used for the first top dressing;
- in the third top dressing, only phosphorus and potassium fertilizers should be used at the stage of berry formation.
At the flowering stage, foliar top dressing using drugs such as Aquarin Novofert or "Kemira". Nitrogen or fully mineral top dressing is used in the inhibited development of a vineyard in a greenhouse.
Greenhouse grape pruning
With late autumn planting, the stems are pruned by two-thirds of the summer growth. When planting vines during the growing season, starting pruning is done after leaf fall.
In the first year
In summer, you should trim the side shoots to 6 leaves. When pruning second-order shoots, only one leaf should be left. The main stem and lateral shoots should be freely fixed to save a place for development. In late autumn, the vine is shortened by two-thirds, with pruning of side shoots to the first bud.
In the second year
In the spring, when forming grape brushes on the lateral shoots, pruning should be done.leaving a couple of leaves over a bunch. Lateral, with no fruiting shoots, are cut off after the formation of the fifth leaf. Lateral shoots are cut to a pair of buds.
The formation of plants in subsequent years
A properly formed vine requires minimal maintenance. Stepsons are subject to removal. In addition, a long or medium pruning of the vine is carried out annually, which depends on the strength of the growth of the vine bush.
Overloading the vines should not be allowed. If necessary, rationing is carried out.
Diseases and pests of greenhouse grapes
Grapes cultivated in a protected ground are less often affected by the main diseases of the vineyards. Particular attention in the greenhouse design requires the protection of the vines from scale insects. For this purpose, it is recommended to remove and burn all old bark removed from the vine bushes. In the last decade of December, it is recommended to treat the plants with tar solution. To combat spider mites, a drug is used. "Keltan."
How to plant grapes in a greenhouse
Despite the fact that the initial cultivation of vines in a greenhouse design will be quite costly and troublesome, it is this method of cultivation that allows you to get healthy and tasty berries in regions not intended for creating vineyards on open ground.