Cherry is one of the most commonly planted garden crops. Equally important is both the term and the method of vaccination. According to the terms, it is customary to subdivide the vaccine into spring and summer.
Vaccination belongs to the category of vegetative methods of plant propagation, which are based on the union of parts of several garden crops. Reception is in demand when it is necessary to propagate fruit or berry trees and shrubs.
The peculiarity of combining the plants themselves or their parts is the ability to obtain the optimal combination of the qualities of the most strong and resistant to weather characteristics and diseases of the plant with high rates and quality characteristics of another crop.
It should be remembered that the hybrid plants obtained as a result of vaccination are not able to form fruits with similar qualitative indicators, and seed material will be produced exclusively on the top of such a plant.
The concept of scion and stock
The plant, from which the stem part and root system is preserved, is usually called a stock or base.
The part of the plant represented by the stem, leaves or fruits that is grafted onto the first plant, or stock, is the scion, or the top.
The highest level of vaccination efficiency is observed with the same parameters of the stem part of the stock and scion.
For optimal results, choose one of the following stock types:
- Rootstocks they have lower indices for resistance to climatic conditions and bacterial microflora damage, but are characterized by high indices of the formed crop.
- Vegetative stocks more resistant to weather changes, but have some fruiting disadvantages. They are optimal for use in long and warm seasons.
To determine the most optimal variety for use as a grafted plant, all the qualities of the stock should be evaluated.
Harvesting cherry cuttings in spring
The success of a procedure such as vaccination directly depends on the density of contact of plant tissues on the stock and scion, which are represented by vascular cambium. For this reason, it is necessary to correctly and timely prepare the material used and make sure that plant tissues are of high quality and suitable for vaccination.
- Cuttings of any fruiting plants should be carried out in the autumn, closer to winter, but before the onset of sharply negative temperatures.
- Stalks harvested from apple and pear can be stored in moistened sawdust on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator.
- Cuttings harvested from stone plants are well preserved in the frozen state. Freezing should be carried out in frozen sawdust, after wrapping the chopped cuttings with a damp rag.
How to plant cherry on a plum in a split
Currently, several methods of vaccination are actively used. Knowing the features and techniques of each method of vaccination, the gardener can choose the most optimal and convenient option in each case. It should be remembered that it is advisable to carry out such activities in the morning or immediately after sunset.
The method is quite easy, but requires strict observance of the execution technology.
The choice of scion and stock
- The grafts of scion and stock should be at rest and have the same diameter, varying from seven millimeters to one centimeter.
- The standard length of the handle should be about thirty centimeters.
- The shank should have at least three and no more than five buds.
Preparation of scion and stock
- Remove the terminal end on the scion.
- Perform a beveled cut on the base of the scion.
- Run a similar beveled cut on the stock.
- Cut suitable “tongues” to secure the scion to the stock.
- Combine the graft with the stock and fix using a special grafting tape or other elastic material.
Four weeks later, the winding should be removed from the vaccination site so as not to limit the growth of wood. Below the place of vaccination, all growths should be regularly removed.
The most popular and common way of vaccination. Performing budding can be carried out even by a novice gardener.
- Cut the corner a quarter of the rootstock without removing the bark.
- Cut a small area, combining it with an angular cut to obtain a notch and remove the bark.
- Cut the scion stalk with a kidney in the central part according to the size of the cut rootstock section.
- Try a graft on a stock, performing size adjustment if necessary.
- Place the scion in the recess on the stock, making sure that there are no gaps, and the fit is as tight as possible.
- Fix the scion to the stock using any elastic material.
The best option is to use a plastic film. When fixing, do not wrap the scion with the kidney with a film. Remove the latch after four weeks.
If successful, the kidney will start growing, and the next year it will be necessary to incise a centimeter above the awakened kidney on the scion and remove any growth below the scion.
Into the cleavage
This method of vaccination is recommended for use in the spring. A feature is the ability to work using mature plants and branches of another species (for example, a cherry plum branch is grafted onto a cherry).
- Make on the lower branch, the length of which is not less than fifteen centimeters, perpendicular to the direction of the slice.
- Make a central cleavage of the stock to a depth of fifteen centimeters.
- Cut off the end part and the base on the grafts cuttings.
- Run a beveled cut on the scion, the length of which corresponds to the depth of the cleavage of the stock.
- Having expanded the cleavage into the stock, introduce a beveled section of the scion there.
- Seal with wax, garden varnish or emulsion all exposed wood after vaccination.
The growth appearing under the vaccination site should be removed in a timely manner. Non-established or too weak scion should also be removed.
To the bark
The harvesting of cuttings is carried out from healthy and productive plants, and the vaccine itself should be carried out in accordance with the established technology. The method is relevant if there is too large a stock for a standard stock.
The choice of scion and stock
- A quality stem has three branches at rest with at least three and no more than five buds.
- The length of the handle should be about thirty centimeters.
- Rootstocks should be straight and smooth and have a diameter of five centimeters.
Preparation of scion and stock
- Trim a viable branch with healthy wood for rootstock.
- Cut scions, the length of which should be about twelve centimeters, with five healthy kidneys.
- At a distance of seven centimeters from the end of the scion, produce a beveled cut extending to the base.
- In accordance with the size of the scion cuttings, make marks on the stock using a sharp knife.
- Cut the rootstock bark according to the marking made by the knife.
- Apply scion cuttings to the recesses in the stock and, having tightly combined them, fix each scion with a pair of nails.
The place of the cut on the stock should be carefully treated with a special wax composition, garden varnish or emulsion. Any growth that forms under the vaccination site must be removed.
What can I instill cherry on
Initially, you should grow or pick a quality stock, healthy, strong and young. The parameters of the thickness of the stem can vary from three to ten centimeters. It is allowed to use viable and maximally strong branches with a diameter of at least ten centimeters. In addition, plant compatibility should be considered.
Grafting cherries to cherries is the most optimal and common option. The most successful is the implementation of spring vaccination. Can be used as ordinary varieties of cherries, as well as options for combining with felt cherries.
This combination is often successful, due to the use of stock and scion from representatives of the same species. With the right vaccination, the cuttings take root quickly enough at the optimal time. Allowed to use any varieties of cherries.
An interesting way to vaccinate currants on cherry stock is widespread in Bulgaria. Here, the harvesting of cuttings is carried out in early spring with the subsequent preservation of the material under snow or in cellars. In the last decade of March, vaccination is carried out according to the method in the butt or in the split.
Very popular option. Bird cherry in the middle zone of our country is widespread, is a very unpretentious and winter-hardy plant, which allows you to get the highest quality, frost-resistant and viable stock.
It is often used by gardeners as a material for vaccinating precisely cherry plum, which is due to the presence of this fruit tree has a very strong and hardy root system, which has a fairly high level of frost resistance. Of course, the reverse version of the vaccination is also allowed: cherry plum.
Cherry on plum
Of the many stone fruits, it is the plum that represents the strongest type of stock. The best option is to use semi-wild plums or thorns, which are distinguished by easy adaptation to adverse climatic conditions and resistance to most diseases.
An interesting option is to vaccinate felt cherries on a turn or plum. As a result, it is possible to obtain a stunted tree with a wide, sprawling crown and in many colors resembling flowering sakura.
We also recommend that you read the article on cherry hybrids.
Tips & Tricks
If the winter is too warm, it is possible to harvest cherry shoots for vaccination. Cuttings are cut in mid-March and stored wrapped in moist rags on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. The grafting technique for any stone plants involves the use of an exceptionally clean and sharp budding or copulation knife.
All actions during vaccination should be performed as quickly as possible. For fixation, it is recommended to use a special vaccination tape, which can be replaced with polyvinyl chloride or plastic film.
Strict adherence to the rules allows you to get a healthy, fully fruitful and resilient tree after vaccination.