Cultivate grapes (Vitis) started back in ancient Greece. At that time, the berry was praised for its unique qualities and exquisite taste. Now the plant is grown everywhere, even in regions with an unfavorable climate. A similar opportunity appeared due to the fact that frost-resistant cultivars were bred.
Characteristics and features of frost-resistant grape varieties
Many gardeners are suspicious of growing grapes, as they believe that it will not survive the winter period. But this is not so: a number of plant varieties are frost-resistant and do not require any shelter for the winter.
Some grape varieties, for example, "Levokumsky" (Levokunskiy) and "Crystal" (Kristall) can withstand temperatures below -29 degrees. But in the early years, they need serious care and there is a need for shelter. And in the third year, the vine branch can be left without shelter.
Popular non-covering varieties
In total, there are about 20 non-covering grape varieties. They differ in some qualities and have their disadvantages and advantages. Many varieties are unpretentious in care and feel great in central Russia.
|Grade name||Short description||Berry quality|
|Ontario||The American variety, bred from the Diamond and Winchel varieties, weighs up to 200 g in clusters; the variety has excellent resistance to diseases and low temperatures.||The berries are round, the color is golden, the taste is sweet and sour.|
|"Amethyst" (Ametistovyj)||The variety is not susceptible to disease and is able to withstand temperatures up to -35 degrees. The vine is powerful, grows rapidly, the weight of the bunch reaches 700 g.||The fruits are juicy, dark blue, sweet.|
|Isabella (VitislabruscaL.)||One of the most famous non-covering varieties. It has been actively used since 1950, grapes require a warm climate, therefore it can be grown only in Central Russia, up to 3 brushes are formed on a single vine, the variety tolerates transportation without problems.||The berries are used in pure form for food, to create wine, for preservation, the fruits are rounded 18 mm, weight - 3 g, the color of the berries is blue.|
|"Lydia" (Lidiya)||The variety is actively used in mid-latitudes. It was bred in America and is a hybrid of the Labrusca variety. The fruit ripens in early autumn. The fruits of the grapes are large; resistance to frost and fungus is good.||The berries are almost transparent, pink, round, the skin is dense, there is a waxy coating.|
|Moore's Early||The variety is characterized by excellent productivity, tolerates temperatures up to -36 degrees, requires pruning in early autumn.||The berries are purple, medium in size, round, the taste resembles the Isabella variety.|
|Kay Gray (Kau Gray)||The variety is characterized by early ripening, small clusters, the bush itself is powerful, the grapes can withstand temperatures up to -42 degrees.||Amber fruits, small, with an interesting taste, are used to make wines.|
|"Valiant" (Valiant)||Winter-hardy variety that can withstand up to -47 degrees, the bush grows quickly, clusters are medium in size.||The fruits are small, blue, have seeds, strawberry flavor, average sugar content. The fruits are used to create wine, jelly.|
Popular conditional covering varieties
Conventional-covering varieties of culture are not as hardy as non-covering, so they are removed from the support in the fall and laid on the ground. Of the features, it is worth noting their high productivity, which means the need for pruning.
|Grade name||Short description||Characteristics of berries|
|Early Pineapple (Ananasniy ranniy)||The variety is obtained from the varieties "Pineapple" (Ananasnyi) and "Pearl" Saba (Shemchug Saba). Early ripe, gives fruit by the end of summer, leaves are impressive in size, clusters in the shape of a cone.||The fruits are oval, large, yellow, sweet, tasty, the purpose is universal.|
|"Aleshinkin" (Aleshinkin)||Early crop variety, resistant to low temperatures and fungi. Clusters in the shape of a cone, branched bush, leaves are brilliant, five-lobed, bisexual flowers.||Fruits of medium density, oval, round, amber color, sweet, sugar content of about 20%.|
|"Balabanovsky" (Balabanovskiy)||The variety was bred as a result of crossing varieties Muscat Hamburg (Muscat Gamburgskiy) and Wilder (Vilder). Ripening of fruits occurs at the end of summer, leaves are large, small clusters.||The fruits are round, large, pink, the taste is pleasant, the purpose is universal.|
|"Far Eastern Novikova" (DalnevostochnyyNovikova)||Medium-sized variety, characterized by excellent frost resistance, resistant to fungi, clusters - 250 grams, the ripening period is very early, technical grade.||The fruits are blue, medium in size, have an unusual aroma, sugar content of 22%, the purpose is universal.|
|"Beauty of the North" (KrasaSevera)||Resistant to low temperatures and fungi. The bush can withstand up to -25 degrees, the clusters are large, the growing season is 110 days, the yield and transportability are high.||Fruits are considered medicinal, sugar content is 17%, the concentration of folic acid is significant.|
|Grif||American hybrid obtained from the Queen of the Vineyards and Buffalo. The variety can withstand temperatures of -28 degrees, it is resistant to fungi, the mass of the bunch is 450 grams.||The fruits are round, large, purple, there are no seeds, the purpose is universal.|
|"Liepajas Dzintars" (LiepajasDzintars)||Vigorous variety, ripening lasts 90 days, frost resistance -25 degrees, cluster weight - 300 grams, a female flower, pruning for 6 eyes, ripening is good.||Amber-colored fruits, weight - 5 grams, sugar content 24%, purpose - table variety.|
Features of care for frost-resistant varieties
Caring for frost-resistant grapes in general is similar to caring for standard varieties. But there are some nuances!
- Since the berries of non-covering varieties ripen gradually, the harvest should also go gradually - several grapes a day. To obtain a plentiful harvest, it is recommended to take the crop in a timely manner and to trim the bush in autumn and spring.
- Conventionally covering varieties must be covered for the winter by removing the vine and laying it on the ground. Frost-resistant varieties are not subject to shelter. It is not necessary to cover the grapes with polyethylene, otherwise rot may form on the plant, and it will die before the start of frost.
- Do not forget that winter can be without snow. In this case, non-covering varieties may suffer from black frost. In this case, in the spring, the bushes should be warmed up by pouring warm water. Then the plants are removed from the trellis and laid on the ground, and notches are made on the roots so that they sprout faster. From above, the roots will need to be covered with a film.
Winter-hardy grape varieties feel great in Central Russia and even in the northern parts of the country. The fruiting of non-covering varieties is high, therefore, plants periodically need pruning to avoid overload. For the winter, grapes of the type presented do not hide.