Cissus (from Latin Cissus) It is widespread, and also quite unpretentious in terms of cultivation and care, a houseplant, which most flower growers know as house grapes or house birch.
Cissus - This is a representative of the Grape family, or Vitaceae, which includes more than three hundred plants, including those common in the tropical and subtropical zones. A significant part of cissuses is climbing vines, which, like ordinary grapes, cling to the support through the antennae. Cissus foliage can be either whole or dissected.
In indoor floriculture, cissuses bloom extremely rarely. Small and unassuming flowers on cissuses are collected in the likeness of false umbrellas. Cissus is valued by gardeners as an unpretentious, decorative foliage ampel plant, which is ideal for growing in hanging pots.
Popular varieties of cissus
In indoor floriculture, the most common are Antarctic Cissus, or Cissus antarctica, as well as rhomboid Cissus, or Cissus rhombifolia, which are favorably distinguished by shade tolerance and unpretentiousness.
Cissus Antarctic (Cissus antarctica)
C. antarctica refers to highly climbing plants. This cissus with the help of antennae easily clings to the supports. Antarctica has brownish stems, bright green leaves, up to 8 cm in size, oval and rough to the touch. Stems, petioles and antennae are characterized by dense pubescence. The flowers have a greenish color and gather in a corymbose type of inflorescences.
The plant is characterized by active growth and unpretentiousness. Looks great in hanging pots and baskets.
Cissus is rhombic or rhombic (Cissus rhombifolia)
C. rhombifolia It belongs to the category of grassy vines and is the most unpretentious species in indoor floriculture. It has rhomboid, triple and complex leaves of dark green color, with serrated edges. The plant has a pubescent type of stems and petioles, as well as a small antennae.
In conditions of natural, natural growth C. rhombifolia blooms very small, greenish-stained, flowers that collect in a racemose type of inflorescences with the formation of edible fruits in red.
Cissus multicolored (Cissus discolor)
C. discolor is the most decorative and attractive cissus in indoor floriculture. The foliage of this plant resembles living patterns, and the reddish background of the upper part of the leaves is complemented by silver spots. On the underside, the leaves have a purple color.
Under natural conditions, the plant grows in the tropics with a temperature of about 30aboutWith a high level of humidity, which complicates the process of growing C. discolor at home.
Cissus striped (Cissus striata)
C. striata characterized by the presence of very small in size three or five palmate leaves, which in their shape are very similar to girl's grapes. The plant grows fast enough and absolutely not demanding on indicators of air humidity. In winter, C. striata tolerates a fairly low temperature drop of up to 30aboutWith heat, which contributes to a stable transition of the plant to the resting phase.
C. striata is very suitable for indoor floriculture, but is extremely rare.
Cissus Quadrangular (Cissus quadrangularis)
C. quadrangularis - an evergreen type of creeper. Such succulents can be successfully grown in indoor floriculture. The plant has a fairly thick, tetrahedral shoots that are about 1 cm in diameter.
C. quadrangularis are traditional medicinal plants used in the treatment of joints and bone. The plant helps cleanse the blood and can improve its composition. Quite often used for losing weight and increasing overall tone.
In addition, in the conditions of indoor floriculture, quite often you can find such varieties of cissus, such as:
- Cactus (Cissus cactiformis),
- Cissus rotundifolia (Cissus rotundifolia),
- Cissus Ferruginous (Cissus adenopoda),
- Cissus amazon (Cissus amasonica).
Cissus: room grapes
Reproduction and planting rules
As a rule, cissuses breed in spring or early summer, with the emergence of new, young shoots on the plant. Propagate these plants quite easily. It is enough to observe the following technology:
- cut the cuttings from the lateral new shoots, 20 cm long. Each stalk should have a small fragment of the main shoot;
- remove from the cuttings all the lower leaves, and then lower them with the end part into the composition with a mixture with growth hormones;
- fill a flower pot with nutritious soil mixture for indoor plants and plant several, but no more than five, prepared cuttings there at once;
- cover the flower pot with cuttings with plastic wrap to create the effect of a miniature indoor greenhouse, and expose in a warm and bright place.
If new, young shoots appear on the cuttings, then the rooting has been successful and you can remove the film coating from the flower pots. Further care is a fairly economical watering when the soil dries to a depth of one centimeter.
Qualitatively rooted cuttings should be planted one at a time in flower pots filled with lumpy soil. Pinching the top of the shoots gives a good effect, which will allow the plant to branch. In the spring, cissuses should be trimmed.
Care for indoor grapes
Despite the fact that almost all types of cissuses are unpretentious plants and can be recommended for indoor cultivation, even novice gardeners, in order to maintain a healthy appearance of Cissus, you should follow the growing technology.
Choosing a place in the room
It is necessary to place cissuses in rooms that have oriental and western orientations. Liana-like plants can grow well on the north side, in artificial light. When placed on southern windows, indoor grapes require shading from direct sunlight.
The most photophilous is S. rhombifolia, which is recommended to be grown close to sunny windows.
Abundant watering primarily requires species that have a sufficiently large mass of foliage, which implies significant evaporation of moisture. In the spring and summer periods, cissuses should be watered as abundantly and often as possible. Water should be used soft and warm. Before watering, it is recommended to defend tap water.
In cold seasons, the amount of irrigation is reduced, and irrigation is carried out exclusively for the life support of the root system of the plant.
Temperature and humidity
Temperature values for growing cissus rhomboid or Antarctic should be moderate. In the cold season, the temperature can vary from 15 to 18 degrees Celsius.
For multi-colored cissus, it is necessary to increase the air humidity parameters and maintain the temperature at a level of 16 to 20 degrees. The cissuses are very responsive to summer spraying and holding a weekly warm shower.
Feeding has a beneficial effect on the growth and development of cissus. Fertilizing should be carried out at the stage of active growth. Top dressing is carried out from spring to autumn. It is recommended to use for this purpose standard, complex fertilizers designed for feeding indoor plants. Depending on the condition of cissus, top dressing should be done once or twice a week.
For young cissuses, it is recommended to transplant annually, which will activate plant growth and significantly increase the amount of green mass. Adult cissuses can be transplanted no more than once every three years.
The size of the flower pot during transplantation should be selected based on the volume of the root system of the plant. It is best to transplant the plant in early spring.
Pests of indoor grapes
Cissuses, along with other indoor plants, can be affected by some diseases and pests. Most often, leaves and shoots of house grapes are damaged by plant parasites such as leaf aphids and spider mites. At the first sign of damage, the houseplant should be isolated.
A small amount of insect pests can be removed mechanically by wiping the leaves with a sponge moistened in a soapy solution. In case of mass damage, spraying with special solutions based on chemical insecticides should be used.
In addition to plant parasites, common errors in care, as well as non-observance of the basic rules of growing technology, can harm indoor cissuses.
Leaves dry and fall
Quite often you can observe when the leaves of cissus fade, dry and fall off. Typically, this situation develops when growing plants in a too dry and hot room. Correct the situation by changing the location of the plant and spraying it. Similar problems can also be triggered by temperature changes and rotting of the root system.
Yellowing of foliage along the veins is characteristic for damage by a spider mite. For severe, massive lesions, systemic insecticides are used. In addition, yellowing of foliage may be associated with a violation of the irrigation regime and malnutrition. In this case, it is necessary to feed the plant with trace elements.
Brown spots on the leaves
The reason for the appearance of brown spots on the leaves of cissus is most often the lack of phosphorus or nitrogen nutrition of the plant. However, brown spots with mold elements may indicate waterlogging in the flower pot and problems with the root system of the plant.
Brown leaf tips
Darkening of the tips of the leaves can be a consequence of a violation of the irrigation regime, and also very often occurs when fertilizers are used for top dressing with unsuitable composition. It is recommended not only to adjust the irrigation regime, but also to change the fertilizer used to feed the plants. When changing the fertilizer, you should carefully monitor the reaction of the plant to the performed top dressing.
Cissuses are among the fairly popular indoor plants that grow very easily and quite quickly in residential and office buildings. Such plants respond gratefully to minimal care, are unpretentious and allow gardening of small flower corners and entire walls in a fairly short time, covering them with real exotic thickets.