Ficus - since childhood, a houseplant familiar to everyone. 800 of its varieties - trees, shrubs and vines (green and deciduous) - come from the subtropics and grow there to 25 m. They are appropriate in the interiors of apartments, offices, winter gardens. With improper care, ficuses are sick and even disappear. How to deal with various problems of these plants?
Leaves turn yellow and fall
In autumn and winter, dropping 10-20% of the lower leaves for ficus is normal and natural. At other times of the year, abundant leaf fall is a cause for serious concern and analysis of the causes of what is happening. What can they consist of?
- Most ficuses do not like a sharp change in conditions of detention. Changes in air temperature, lighting, watering and other factors are stress for them. Choosing a permanent place, you can not disturb plants and transfer, for example, from heat to cold. They should be transplanted no more than once every two years. When transplanting large specimens, only the topsoil should be changed. It is best to use for this a mixture of two parts of deciduous soil and one part of sand and turf.
- Unsuitable pot sizes are a common cause of yellowing and dropping leaves of ficus plants. Their sizes are individual for different types of plants. For example, the rubbery look loves the free capacity, and the Benjamin ficus feels good in a cramped pot.
- Lack of nutrition. Between March and September, plants need to be fed with complex mineral fertilizers twice a month. Their composition should include magnesium, nitrogen, iron. For example, the Emerald. The day before feeding, the ficus must be watered so as not to cause a burn of the roots with mineral fertilizers. If the plant is weakened, then top dressing is best done in half the dose.
- All ficuses do not like direct bright sunlight. Even the photophilic ficus of "Benjamin" in the midst of a summer day needs shading. In winter, they are afraid of the lack of lighting, which can provoke yellowing and falling of leaf plates, so containers with trees at this time should be next to the window.
- Ampel plant species need watering and moist air. To do this, they often need to be sprayed with warm water, and the pot should be installed on a pallet with wet pebbles or expanded clay. Treelike species of ficus do not like waterlogging.
Black spots on the leaves
Sometimes dark spots can be seen at the ends and edges of leafy tree plates. This is a serious sign that can lead to the death of pets. The causes of these problems are as follows:
- Elevated temperature, dry air, overfeeding plants.
- Low room temperature in the winter.
- Sunburn, in the heat of the plant you need to shade.
- Waterlogging the soil. To avoid this, the soil should be monitored before wetting. It is enough to stick a stick into it to a depth of 3 cm. If the earth remains on the removed stick, then watering should be delayed. The drainage system saves the plant from waterlogging.
- Dark spots on the leaves may also appear due to various fungal diseases:
- Anthracnosis is characterized by the development of spots into ulcers. All damaged leaves are cut, the plant is treated with fungicide, stopping its spraying and reducing watering. It is recommended to ventilate the room daily.
- Cercosporosis - the appearance of black dots on the back of the leaves. Fighting it is similar to treatment for anthracnose.
Red spots on the leaves
Sometimes reddish dots 1-3 mm in size appear on the lower part of the leaf plates or at the edges. This is not a disease. The reasons for such phenomena may be as follows:
- A protective reaction from the bright sun or even burns. This is especially true for young trees. Do not spray plants in the sun. Lighting should be adequate, but not excessive.
- The tips of the leaves dry out and become stained due to their hypothermia in combination with waterlogging of the earth. In this case, the houseplant needs to be removed from the draft and reduce its moisture.
Leaves curl and curl.
Leaf curl is a protective measure of a plant by which the surface of water evaporation is reduced. This happens with its deficit. From this helps watering with complete penetration of the soil. Excess liquid remaining in the pan after watering is drained.
However, there are other reasons:
- Lack of light. Ficuses need diffuse lighting.
- Rotting of roots due to waterlogging. The roots are inspected, damaged fragments are removed. The rest of them must be held for 15 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate. The earth in the pot is periodically loosened to avoid its compaction, as it causes difficulty in breathing the underground part of the tree.
- Soil infestation with earthworms or larvae of the scythe. If this happens, the plants should be transplanted into another earthen mixture.
- Low temperature.
- Leaflets touch the glass. Glass is hot in summer and cold in winter. Avoiding thermal shock is easy. It is enough to set the tree aside from the glass or hang a light cloth between it and the glass.
- The presence of pests on the inside. Plants are treated with special preparations.
- Viral disease. The infected tree is destroyed to avoid the spread of the disease.
Ficus discards leaves
In autumn, with a decrease in illumination, the ficus loses many leaves. At the end of September, it needs to be rearranged in a bright place for a period before the active leaf fall. In this case, reorientation of the tree crown with respect to light is not allowed. Therefore, before rearrangement, it should be noted the side of the pot, directed towards the light, with adhesive tape.
In cold weather, watering the tree must be limited to avoid the growth of young foliage. If these conditions are met, leaf fall should stop.
Also, when dropping leaves sometimes help:
- transplanting a tree into a smaller capacity;
- artificial lighting;
- propagation by rooted cuttings (in extreme cases);
- when undercooling, under the container with ficus, you need to put foam, felt or other material that isolates the plant from the cold floor.
If the ficus has no leaves at all, then it can be restored with new shoots. When the branches of this tree are flexible, and the juice protrudes from the trunk, it does not die, and you must patiently and consistently continue its salvation.
Ficus leaves fall
Pests and control measures
The main pests of ficus are scale insects, mealybugs and spider mites. They appear mainly due to improper care of plants. These insects are so small that they are not always visible to the naked eye. Their presence can be determined by a change in the color of the leaves and the stem, their stickiness, cobweb and other signs of an unhealthy appearance of trees.
You can deal with pests using a soap solution prepared as follows: five tablespoons of washing powder diluted in hot water, the same amount of diesel fuel is poured with a bucket of water. This product is washed leaves and stems of ficus.
You can treat the plant with a mixture of crushed garlic, soap and water. This procedure is carried out several times with a three-day interval until the problem disappears.
Ficus is an unpretentious pet, known for the variety of its types and forms. Its cultivation is even for beginner growers. With proper and patient care, he will delight with a thick and juicy crown, suitable for any interior.