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The apple-tree variety "Moscow Grushovka" was obtained as a result of the evolution of varieties in a natural way. He was known at the end of the XVIII century. In Russia, it is common among amateur gardeners everywhere.
Apples "Grushovka Moscow" - an early summer variety. The trees of Grushovka are large with a dense crown, which in young trees is pyramidal in shape, and in mature ones it is spherical. The bark is colored orange-yellow.
The smooth bark on the shoots is dark cherry in color. The leaves are large, yellowish. The apple tree blooms with delicate pink flowers. Fruits, similar in shape to a turnip, are small (50 g each) with smooth skin. They are painted yellow-green with a blurred blush and pink mottled stripes on it. The pulp is white with yellowness, loose, juicy, tender, aromatic, has a sweet and sour taste. The first apples appear in early August. Moreover, they do not mature at the same time, but over a couple of weeks and are prone to shedding.
Description of the merits of the variety comes down to good tolerance of cold, high yields, early ripening.
The disadvantages include: not the best presentation of the fruit, their ripened over time, susceptibility to scab, poor transportability.
The nutritional value
The content of nutrients in apples "Moscow Grushovka" is as follows: sugar - 9%, acid - 0.9%, ascorbic acid - 9.2 mg per 100 g, P-active substances - 129 mg per 100 g.
These apples normalize digestion, are useful for anemia, vitamin deficiency, gastrointestinal diseases.
Grushovka apples are used to make juice, which is recommended for drinking with diseases of the bladder, kidneys, liver, acute bronchitis and nervous diseases.
However, Moscow Grushovka is a rather sour apple variety, therefore, after eating, you should brush your teeth or rinse your mouth so that the tooth enamel does not deteriorate. This should be done after drinking juices and mashed potatoes from these apples.
You can’t eat these apples to people with a sensitive digestive system and with symptoms of stomatitis.
How to plant an apple tree in summer
Comparative characteristics of varieties "Grushovka"
"Grushovka Moscow" was the basis for other varieties.
- "Winter pear" differs from it in larger fruits. The collection of this variety of apples is carried out in October. These fruits are more light, can be stored for several months. The variety is very productive. At least 100 kg of fruits are harvested from the tree. They are larger than the Moscow pear. This variety is not widely used, since its winter hardiness is quite low, and the disease resistance of these apple trees is also low. You can meet them in Central Russia, in Ukraine, in Belarus, but the variety can grow further to the south.
- Reviews of experts say that the most successful variety is "Grushovka early" or "improved". The fruits of this variety are twice as large as that of the progenitor. Productivity reaches up to 200 kg per tree. The variety is resistant to scab, has good winter hardiness. Apples appear in late August. But they ripen at the same time. And apple trees bear fruit irregularly, but after a year. Therefore, this variety is used only in amateur gardening and is common in most regions of the European part of Russia.
Most of all, the Grushovka apple tree loves brightly lit places, then its fruits ripen sweet. Apple trees do not tolerate stagnation of water. Therefore, it is better to plant them on a knoll or provide for drainage of the soil. Soils are better to choose slightly acidic soddy, light loamy, sandy, sod-podzolic or leached chernozem. The best landing time is either in late April-early May or in September-early October.
Before the spring planting, autumn preparatory work is carried out:
- Dig a hole up to 1 m wide and 70 cm deep.
- Manure or humus is introduced into it so that it can be reheated before planting.
Apple trees are planted as follows:
- 3-4 days before this, 30 kg of humus are added to the pit, a depression is made for the roots.
- A support stake is driven into the pit on the north side, which will protect the tree from frost and burns.
- If the tree has bare roots, then leaves are torn off it, leaving only a couple of them on each branch. Roots should not be pruned.
- On the edges of the pit make an earthen roller.
- After planting, 2-3 buckets of water are poured into the hole.
- When the water is absorbed, the wells are mulched with humus or compost.
Grushovka apple trees need the following agrotechnical methods for caring for them:
- Early in the spring, trees are fed with organic (manure, humus) and mineral (urea) fertilizers. Nitrogen fertilizers are best applied at the beginning of summer, when the fruits are tied. The composition of fertilizers determines the composition of the soil itself.
- After the first flowering, most of the flowers should be cut off from the young tree so that it develops better. Half of unripe fruits are also cut off. Then the rest of the apples will be larger and sweeter.
- You need to water once a week at the rate of at least two buckets per tree. If the summer is not dry, then watering is finished already in August, so that the tree does not grow, but prepares for winter.
- In winter, to increase the winter hardiness of trees, horse manure is introduced under them.
We also recommend that you read the article in which we talk about Macintosh apples.
Pruning and Rodent Protection
To improve fruiting and rejuvenation of apple trees, they are cut. This is usually done in the fall and spring. It is important to consider the following rules:
- a cut is made flush with the trunk below the annular inflows, without leaving stumps;
- old apple trees can be trimmed completely by cutting obliquely at a height below human height;
- in winter, it is better to paint over the place of cut with a special paint, periodically updating it, and in warm time - protect it with a thick layer of a garden var.
When protecting the landing of "Grushovka Moscow" from rodents:
- It is important that the protective material transmits and repels sunlight. It can be a fiberglass mesh wrapping a whitewashed tree.
- Tying the trunk, the lower branches are pressed to it for the winter.
- Special chemicals are used only for a short time, as they are washed off by rain.
Delicious juices, salads, snacks are made from Moscow Grushovka. In addition, it is suitable for cooking jams and preserves. Children love apple purees made from it. For the winter you can make compotes, canning them with whole or coarsely chopped apples.
Harvesting and storage
"Grushovka Moscow" - an early variety of apples, harvested in August. It is not stored for long. "Early Grushovka" also matures in late summer, but can be stored for a couple of months.
Best stored "Wintertime Grushovka", which ripens in mid-autumn. These apples lie until spring. They are usually stored in the basement at zero temperature.
Apple tree "Grushovka Moscow": harvesting
Apples "Grushovka" - a very common variety in the suburbs and in many parts of the center of Russia. This unpretentious, high-yielding variety with tasty, low-calorie fruits is loved by both adults and children.