With the onset of autumn, troubles are added not only to gardeners, but also to gardeners. Autumn garden processing is a very important stage, which allows fruit trees and berry bushes to prepare for winter frosts and easily survive them. It is very important in the autumn period to perform the highest quality garden treatment, which will protect plants from pests and diseases, and also reduce the harmful effects of winter cold, which is especially important for the apple tree.
General information about garden pests
On the territory of the middle zone of our country, apple and pears are most often grown from fruit trees. Particular attention is paid to the cultivation of shrubs, including gooseberries, red and black currants, as well as raspberries. In addition, quite a few gardeners are engaged in growing stone fruits, represented by plums and cherries, which become easy prey for fungal diseases - scab and late blight.
All trees should be well prepared for winter. It is very important to protect fruit trees and shrubs from diseases and pests in the fall.
The greatest harm can be caused to garden plantations in the form of fruit trees:
- sucking pests, represented by aphids, tinkers, leaf-sheaths and ticks;
- fungal diseases, among which the most common are scab and late blight, nesting on fallen fruits;
- pests affecting the generative organs, including fruit weevils and pipelines;
- leaf-eating pests, including representatives from the family of dipper, white flies, as well as cocoon moths and bagpipes.
The following pathogens and pest attacks are especially dangerous for berry shrubs:
- raspberry beetles and various aphids, as well as ticks;
- Californian scale insect, for which currants, gooseberries and raspberries are attractive;
- stem nematodes, as well as glass and raspberry gall midges.
In addition, untimely cultivation of soil and trees in the garden can provoke a whole invasion of pests and diseases such as plum or acacia false shields, as well as the settlement of false California shields or leaflets and scabs. It should be remembered that most often apple trees suffer from diseases. To protect the garden, autumn tillage, fruit trees and shrubs are needed.
Processing trees in the garden in the fall: urea, copper sulfate
As a rule, in the last days of October or early November, foliage is actively dumped in the garden, which is a signal to start the procedure for autumn processing of trees from the main pests. All foliage from the ground around garden plants, including shrubs such as currants, must be collected and burned. Such events can guarantee to get rid of all pests that are also preparing for wintering.
Good protection of trees is the removal of lichen and dead sections of the bark with the whitewashing of the stem. Autumn whitewashing not only helps to disinfect plants, but also helps protect trees from severe frosts. The surest way to treat garden plants, including apple trees and other fruit, as well as currants and gooseberries, is to spray them with pesticides.
Spraying is carried out in dry and calm weather. If it rains during the day after spraying, the procedure must be repeated. For autumn spraying of pome seeds and stone fruits, as well as grapes, gooseberries, raspberries and currants, a Bordeaux mixture is used, which is prepared in a more concentrated solution than for spring processing.
Apple trees and currants can be processed with copper or iron sulfate, as well as a mixture of soda ash and copper sulfate. In order for copper or iron sulfate to work as efficiently as possible, a solution of laundry soap can be added to it. When using iron sulfate, a working solution should be used on the day of dilution.
Maximum protection for apple trees is required from scab and late blight, the destruction of which depends on the quality of the land. Iron sulfate has the most beneficial effect when used precisely in apple orchards. The use of iron sulfate prevents the formation of moss and lichen on the trunks of trees.
We also offer you to read an article in which we talk about typical autumn mistakes by summer residents.
Fruit trees: diseases and how to properly handle for treatment
Shrub treatment: how to spray in October and before winter
It is most effective to carry out autumn processing of shrubby urea and iron sulfate. Processing in the autumn period allows you to perform the following functional purposes:
- the destruction of harmful insects and rodents;
- effective destruction of microorganisms that are the causative agents of various diseases;
- protection against severe frosts.
Shrubs are treated in the autumn to prevent diseases by spraying plants with modern fungicides. If such an event is not carried out in a timely manner, then pathogens can spread to almost all garden plantings. This process is especially fast when warm and humid weather remains in the fall.
Liquid soil treatment
Autumn tillage ensures the preservation of garden plantings in a healthy and fruitful state. High-quality autumn soil cultivation allows the saturation of the earth to be carried out with microelements and components useful for strengthening plant immunity, as well as to destroy pests sent for wintering.
The most effective way to prepare the soil for winter is not only the cleaning and destruction of all fallen leaves, but also digging of the upper soil layers. It is very important to carry out several autumn digging. When plowing the ground in the first autumn month, you should try to remove as much as possible all weeds and plant debris that will serve as a wintering place for pests from the garden plot.
If necessary, a late, maximally deep digging of the land is carried out, which will destroy the surviving pests and their egg laying. In addition, after digging, an earthen lump should be rolled around the tree trunk, which is aimed at protecting the stem from the penetration of rodents.
Expert advice on how and how to spray
It is especially important to carry out basic garden processing activities until mid-October. It is before this time that fruit trees are treated with urea, which is an effective remedy against fungal diseases, including scab and spotting. In addition, urea is very qualitatively capable of burning eggs of insect pests, and also has a detrimental effect on pupae and larvae of fruit and shrub pests. It should be remembered that the use of urea at the very end of autumn is not recommended, as this can provoke the saturation of plants with nitrogen.
Urea is very often used in the form of nitrogen top dressing, and spraying this garden drug under the winter period can activate the vegetative process in plants. At the same time, the garden does not have time to prepare for rest before frost, and may die. Therefore, the last use of urea is made no later than a month before frost.
To completely rid plants of a significant part of the disease, you can use iron or copper sulfate in combination with insecticides, which increase the effectiveness of insect control solutions.
You may also be interested in an article in which we talk about the rules for autumn processing of a greenhouse.
Preparing a garden for winter is not an easy task. But with the correct conduct of all necessary measures, all the trees will survive the frost well.