Almost all gardeners every year encounter the cultivation of various plants in closed ground conditions. Work in greenhouse constructions consists not only in the cultivation of high-quality and healthy seedlings, but also in soil preparation. Soil disinfection in greenhouses is a very important stage of all pre-planting preparatory measures.
However, before disinfecting the ground in a greenhouse, a frame structure should be treated. Disinfection of a polycarbonate greenhouse consists in a high-quality disinfection of all parts and structural elements, including the coating. The processing of the greenhouse depends on several factors and should be carried out in accordance with the requirements established for such a procedure.
Disinfection of greenhouse land allows you to protect future plantings from damage by various pathogens, as well as pests. If disinfection of the soil in the greenhouse is not carried out or is carried out incorrectly, then there is a risk of losing not only the health of the cultivated plants, but also the entire crop.
Most often, the source of infection is greenhouse soil and plant debris that remains in the building after the autumn harvest. Cultivate the soil should be the most effective and modern means. Before you deal with soil disinfection, you should familiarize yourself with the main signs of greenhouse soil disease.
Signs of Soil Disease
Under such an extensive concept as greenhouse soil disease, it is customary to understand several features at once.
- Damage to the soil by bacteria or fungi. As seedlings grow and greenhouse plants develop, they are often affected by diseases that can be represented by various bacteria or fungi. Most often, pathogens remain in the soil after harvesting. A small part of these microorganisms dies in the winter, but a large number of them easily tolerate frosts. It is these bacteria and fungi that affect the new planting of seedlings. Signs are the manifestation of diseases that were characteristic of plants in the previous year.
- Damage to the soil by pests and plant parasites. Such small pests as aphids or ticks, as well as large plant parasites represented by a bear or slugs, are perfectly adapted to long-term wintering. Most often, not only adults hibernate in the greenhouse, but also pupae or parasite eggs. The first sign of such a soil disease is a very rapid attack by pests in spring on young plants or seedling bushes.
In addition, the combination of soil damage with depletion, structural disturbance and a significant number of weeds is of great importance for high-quality soil preparation. Of particular importance are the quality of the soil composition and health at the stage of seedling cultivation, which is more susceptible to various bacterial and fungal infections.
We also offer you to find out how the greenhouse is prepared for winter.
Terms and methods of disinfection
There are several ways to perform high-quality soil preparation for planting seedlings or sowing seeds. Soil disinfection is not the only option. Most often, greenhouse soil is “cleaned” using the following methods.
Greenhouse and soil disinfection
A fairly slow method that allows you to effectively destroy bacteria, small pests and parasites, as well as correct the depletion of greenhouse soil.
- The method consists in using unreacted manure or peat, with which greenhouse ridges should be dug up for the winter. The application rate is about four kilograms per square meter. Very good result gives the introduction of sawdust.
- The next step is to add any composting accelerator that contains a mixture of spores of different fungi that contribute to the decomposition of organic substances.
- Then the soil is covered with black plastic film or foamed polyethylene, at least two centimeters thick.
- The mixture formed under cover begins to decay with the release of very aggressive bacteria.
The entire process under the film is harmful to most harmful bacteria, fungi, small plant parasites and weed seeds.
There are several fairly quick and effective methods that very quickly rid greenhouse soil of harmful soil microflora. The method is based on the use of toxic chemicals. Most often, the soil before planting seedlings is treated twice, with an interval of a week, any chemical fungicide, such as "Fundazol". Then this chemical preparation decomposes within a month, after which a biological fungicide, such as Fitosporin, should be added.
The following technologies belong to the category of the most effective and popular disinfection methods.
The use of sulfur drafts
This type of processing is carried out after collecting the entire crop and removing plant residues from the greenhouse. The checker should be placed in the center of the greenhouse and set on fire. All doors and vents should be closed as tightly as possible. Sulfur checker can smolder for about an hour, and poisonous smoke qualitatively disinfects the hothouse space. The smell after smoldering is easily eliminated by long-term ventilation. The method requires compliance with personal security measures.
Copper sulfate treatment
A fairly effective method of disinfecting greenhouse soil, based on the use of a working solution from a bucket of warm water and a spoon of copper sulfate. This solution should be shed as carefully as possible all the greenhouse ridges.
The use of formalin
The method is used extremely rarely, due to the high level of toxicity of the drug. In the greenhouse ridges, several holes should be dug, which are poured with a formalin-based solution. After two weeks, it is required to thoroughly dig up the soil, then to properly ventilate the greenhouse or greenhouse.
Use of bleach
Rather infrequently performed by modern gardeners, since the substance belongs to strong poisons and affects the soil composition poorly. It is used in autumn, after a full harvest and consists in scattering a thin layer of powder in the greenhouse ridges.
Steaming the soil of greenhouse ridges is quite easy, but the quality of disinfection depends on how carefully this procedure is performed. High temperature is detrimental to most pathogenic microorganisms, and to thoroughly steam greenhouse soil, it is enough to spill all the ridges with boiling water, and then cover them with a film.
Use of potassium permanganate
The usual pharmacy potassium permanganate is used by most gardeners in our country. This rather cheap and effective method consists in breeding potassium permanganate crystals in a bucket of water and spilling greenhouse ridges.
The method belongs to the category of the most effective for use in greenhouses and greenhouses. Subject to use is a solution of 2% carbathion, which is used to spill loose soil. For uniform distribution of the solution over the soil, an abundant spill of greenhouse ridges should be performed with water.
To date, there are several more methods of soil disinfection in sheltered conditions, which are based on the use of modern chemicals. Their use involves strict adherence to the instructions attached to the drug.
You can also find out what work should be done in the greenhouse in the fall.
A significant part of diseases and pests is transmitted by the greenhouse plants themselves. Plants grown over several seasons on the same greenhouse ridges contribute to the spread of various pathogens.
Soil preparation in the greenhouse
To effectively protect the plants cultivated in the greenhouse from damage by pests or diseases, crop rotation rules should be observed. Equally important is the use of healthy planting material, as well as modern and high-quality fertilizers.