Forsythia blossoms in your garden symbolize the beginning of spring. Bright yellow flowers, which are strewn with a spreading shrub from top to bottom, stand out against other plants, attracting the eye and recalling the warm rays of the sun. This beautiful plant will make any garden plot lighter and more attractive.
Forsythia or Forsythia is a primrose flowering tree or shrub. Belongs to the genus Maslinovyh (Oleaceae). It reaches a height of 3-4 meters, grows up to 2 meters in width. Oval opposite leaves, up to fifteen centimeters in length. The flowers are yellow, similar in shape to bells. Blooms early - in March-April, flowering lasts from three to four weeks. Forsythia hails from East Asia, but is also found in North America, Europe, and the Balkans. It grows in the European part of Russia (Crimea, Caucasus, Moscow region), as well as in Moldova, Ukraine, the Baltic states.
Types and varieties of plants
The most common are seven species of this shrub:
- Forsythia European (Forsythia europae) - grown in the suburbs and in the south of the country. It grows 2-3 meters in height. The leaves are single, dark green, the largest - 7 cm in length. The flowers (you can see them in the photo) in the shape of a bell are bright yellow.
- Forsythia Giralda (Forsythia giraldiana) - originally from China. The leaves are dark, a maximum of 10 cm. Blooms after 5 years. Flowering occurs in April-May. The flowers are light yellow in color, slightly twisted.
- Forsythia ovoid / oval (Forsythia ovate Nakai) - one of the most winter-hardy and drought-resistant species. Relatively low (up to 2 m). The flowers are bright yellow, flowering lasts 3 weeks.
- Forsythia hanging (Forsythia suspense) - this species has a very wide spreading zone. The branches are curved in an arc towards the ground. The flowers are large, sometimes bundled up to six pieces each. It grows in Ukraine, the Crimea, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
- Forsythia snow / white (Forsythia abeliophzllum) - a small bush (1.5-2.0 m), oval leaves 8 cm in length. The flowers are white and the pharynx is yellow. The buds are pale pink. Creates an indescribable atmosphere in the photo.
- Forsythia is dark green (Forsythia viridissima) - high drought-tolerant shrub, branches pointing up. The leaves are densely growing, serrated, up to 15 cm long. The flowers are greenish-yellowish, gathered in bunches.
- Forsythia Intermediate or Middle Forsythia (Forsythia x intermedia) - high shrub, blooms at 4 years of age. The leaves are dark green oblong, up to 10 cm. The flowers are bright yellow, collected in bunches. Forsythia intermediate is growing very fast.
Many beautiful Forsythia varieties were bred:
- "Siebold" is the most frost-resistant variety. Shrubs are undersized, creeping shoots. The flowers are dark yellow with the edges bent back.
- "Denziflora" - this type of plant has spreading branches and pale yellow strongly twisted flowers. Often found in the suburbs.
- Spectabilis is one of the most beautiful varieties. Low (up to 1 m), but wide - the branches are spread over 120 cm. In summer, the leaves are green, in autumn and spring - purple, bright yellow. The flowers are dark yellow, blooming in late April.
- "Spring Glory" is a tall shrub, in autumn and spring the leaves become dark purple, the flowers are bright yellow.
Forsythia care features
How to plant Forsythia
If you want the plant to take root in your garden and feel comfortable, then When landing, the following points must be observed:
- It is better to plant a plant in spring or autumn (before the first frost).
- Shrub loves light and warmth. Yes, it is shade tolerant, but it will grow better in lighted areas.
- Choose windless places.
- Forsythia just planted should be watered abundantly.
- Do not forget to mulch the earth around the bushes with dry leaves.
Prepare the kidney well for planting:
- dig a hole 60 cm deep, diameter - 50-60 cm;
- if you are planting several bushes, place the holes at a distance of at least one and a half meters from each other;
- it is necessary to make a drainage: place broken brick or crushed stone in the pit (20 cm layer), pour sand on top (8 cm layer);
- if you have acidic soil, then you need to plant 20 grams of ash before planting or a mixture of humus (peat), leaf soil and sand in a ratio of 1: 1: 2.
If you planted a shrub in the fall, then the branches must be bent to the ground and cover the bush with breathable material; in spring, remove material, bend branches and remove foxes. If you planted forcing in the spring, then you do not need to cover the branches.
Caring for forsythia is no different from caring for any other shrub:
- the plant does not like waterlogging, so with sufficient rainfall it does not need watering;
- in dry weather, water the plant with 10 liters of water once a month;
- after watering, loosen the soil so that air enters the roots (you need to loosen it to a depth of 30-40 cm);
- do not forget to remove weeds;
- the bush loves top dressing, in early spring it is necessary to lay out manure near the trunk and then water the land abundantly; in April, you need to feed the plant with mineral fertilizers (60 grams per 1 square meter of land), and after flowering add Kemira Universal to the soil (110 grams per 1 square meter of land);
- before winter, manure or humus must be spread around Forsythia, branches should be bent to the ground, fixed and covered with breathable material, in the spring, shrubs open.
- From young bushes, only frozen, dry or broken branches are removed.
- In adult shrubs in spring, the frozen tips of the branches are cut.
- After the plant fades, the faded branches are cut in half. A quarter of the old thick branches are cut, leaving only 4-6 cm above the soil.
Forsythia - Sunny Shrub
Reproduction by seeds does not bring results - seeds rarely germinate. Propagation by cuttings is widely used (in October, cut the cuttings 20 cm, stick into the soil, cover with dry leaves until spring). Gardeners also use the bush propagation method.
Diseases and Pests
Forsythia is generally resistant to pests, only four diseases can affect it:
- withering (take 2-5% of foundationazole or ceneb and spray the bush with this solution);
- moniliosis - brown spots on the leaves (you need to remove all affected parts of the plant);
- bacteriosis - not treated, the bush will have to be dug up and destroyed;
- nematodes - the soil must be decontaminated with "Carbation".
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Forsythia in landscape design
- The plant looks great on the back row of the mixborder.
- Looks good in groups with other beautiful shrubs.
- Perfectly complement any rockery;
- Colorful bushes perfectly take root on the slope;
- Can be used as a symbolic hedge;
- Very in demand in urban design and landscaping;
- It will be a great background for a photo.
How to plant Forsythia
As you know, Forsythia planting and caring for which will not be difficult will certainly decorate your garden. Unpretentious and insanely beautiful, she is the first to recall the sun after winter and create a spring mood!