The garden form of hazel is hazelnut. The plant perfectly develops on any soil, and its fruits are much larger than hazel. The bush reaches 3 meters in height, the root system is powerful, the crop is large.
Features of planting hazel in the fall
Hazelnut seedlings are recommended to be placed on the basis of the following planting schemes: 6x6, 5x6, 4x6 and 4x5 m. The more space you allocate for a plant, the more powerful it will grow and the greater the yield. There is a nesting method of landing. At the same time, up to 6 plants are placed on a circumference of one and a half meters, using a 6x6 meter planting scheme. The root shoot is removed so that the bush goes into 1 trunk.
If we talk about soil preparation, it is necessary to carry out cultivation before planting. If potassium and phosphorus are low, fertilizer must be added. Nitrogen is introduced as top dressing during the growing season. It is also worthwhile to re-plow the soil and breakdown for landing. Hazelnut seedlings are deepened by 60 centimeters. In order for the roots to develop well, several buckets of humus or fertile soil are introduced. In this case, the nut begins to bear fruit much earlier.
It is recommended to plant hazelnut seedlings in the fall in November or in the spring in February-March. At the same time, a large amount of water is introduced under them, and the soil is mulched. Then watering is done a week later.
How to care, grow; when to transplant (photo)
Caring is no different from caring for other crops. The soil at the trunk circles loosens, but you should not touch the roots. Walnut is watered several times a season to increase yield.
Watering is required mainly in June-July. Fertilizers also play a significant role, bearing fruit also depends on them. The best option is compost and manure, they are brought 2 times a year. Mineral fertilizing is introduced every year. During fruit setting, urea is fed.
Any varieties of hazelnuts increase the yield gradually, from the 3rd year of life. A bucket of nuts from one bush can be obtained only from the 15th year of life.
The fruits ripen from the end of August. Their collection occurs after they become light brown in color. The nuts are then dried and stored in a well-ventilated room.
How is the formation of a bush by pruning
The correct formation of the bush helps to get a good harvest. In the early years, the underground part of the plant develops better than the aboveground. After 3 years, active growth of shoots begins. From them form the trunks of the crown. Those branches that are to be removed are cut off right at the base of the bush.
Growing hazelnuts involves removing excess growth from the bush throughout life. At the same time, young branches are left, and barren stems are eliminated.
Starting from the 11th year, the bush is rejuvenated, while 3 old trunks are removed, and new shoots are shortened. The presented actions should be carried out before the leaves bloom.
Feeding, watering and other care
Hazelnut seedlings have a delicate root system. Therefore, if you make loosening of trunks circles, you should act carefully so as not to touch them. It is better to use mulching with mowed grass. Worms develop well under it, which makes the soil more fertile. Improving productivity helps the introduction of ash into the soil.
Growing nuts involves the implementation of irrigation. It is also necessary to make humus - 2 buckets per year per plant. In the summer there is feeding with ash, in the spring with ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate.
Different varieties of hazelnuts are propagated in different ways.
The easiest way, all the characteristics of the variety are preserved. A pre-dug plant is divided into parts so that 15-centimeter stumps are obtained. At the same time, roots and soil should remain on the parts.
In this case, annual shoots are rooted, but they do not separate them from the plant. It is impossible to take layering older, they will not take root. When propagating by temples, dig holes with a depth of 15 cm, their length should be about 40 cm. The shoots are placed in grooves and fixed with wooden hooks. The upper part of the layers is attached to the pegs. In the place where the bend is located, an incision is made and pollinated with root. Then the grooves are sprinkled with soil and irrigated. So the soil is compacted. From one shoot, only one rooted layering will be obtained.
A laborious but effective way. From one shoot can get up to 5 layering. Laying goes horizontally into the grooves. Layers are pinned, but not covered with soil. From vegetative shoots shoots grow vertically, then they are mulched. During the summer period, layering is ground several times.
Among other things, watering is carried out. As a result, mounds are obtained above the layers. The growth is shortened to 50 cm in order to enhance the formation of roots. The next year, horizontal cuttings are dug up and divided into parts.
Excellent results are obtained when rejuvenating the entire bush. Juvenile shoots are obtained from the sleeping buds of the basal zone. In the process of hilling, leaves from the bottom of the shoots are removed. In autumn, part of the rooted shoots is cut out. In the process of shoot growth, hauling occurs. As a result, it takes root and reaches 1 meter in height by autumn. At the site of constriction, the shoot is broken off with a wire.
When sowing seeds, different offspring are formed, not similar to the mother plant. Such breeding is used for breeding purposes. The presented method makes it possible to obtain new improved varieties. Nuts are selected well developed and large. Their stratification is preliminary carried out. During spring planting, beds should be mulched with dry leaves.
After 5 years, the ability to root cuttings approaches one hundred percent. At the same time, one third of the cuttings are rooted first, and already two thirds of them.
In gardening, shoot growth is actively used. The lower part of the bush for a long time retains the ability to renew, which is very important. Walnut bushes grow in a circle with the help of rhizomes. The growth of hazelnuts is formed in the 3rd year. For reproduction, 2-3-year-old shoots are used, which are separated using an ax. They are called picks. When replanting overgrowths, incisions are made to provide better survival.
Reproduction by vaccination is difficult. Often, bear nut and hazel seedlings are used for this purpose. Vaccination is carried out in early spring. It is tied and applied garden var. A special cap made of PVC film is also installed. After the kidneys form on the handle, the cap is opened, they wait two weeks and are completely removed. After the vaccine is fused, all shoots from the stock are removed.
Diseases and Pests
Hazelnuts are preferred to eat such animals as wild boars, squirrels, woodpeckers, mouse-like rodents, and nuts. Almost all walnut bushes are sooner or later exposed to diseases and pests. The main pests are caterpillars, butterflies, bugs, hares, weevils.
Great danger are nut weevil and barbel. They fight it in the following way: they dig the soil, worm nuts are removed, insects are shaken off on the film and treated with pesticides. Powdery mildew may appear in the second half of summer. Affected leaves must be collected and sprayed with a calcareous broth. Colloidal sulfur is also being processed.
Hazelnuts, the benefits of which are not in doubt, are unpretentious to the planting site and care plant. Its reproduction is carried out in various ways - by cuttings, rhizome, layering, etc. Harvest is big, but it is necessary to protect the bush from diseases and pests.