Multi-varietal trees are trees on which several varieties are grafted. If your need for a particular variety is limited, such a plant will be the best option for the site. Moreover, from one tree you can get both winter and spring varieties. Fruiting in this case will also go more than one year. Growing this kind of tree is more than justified. How many varieties can be vaccinated? It is believed that more than fifteen.
A multi-sorted tree is a branched plant with a crown of skeletal branches; a specific variety is grafted into each of them.
The number of varieties (skeletal branches) depends on your preference. At the same time, it is recommended to plant those varieties whose fruits you will definitely eat.
Benefits of Multi-Varietal Trees
Trees on which several varieties are grafted have a number of advantages.
- Such plants are winter-hardy. This is achieved as follows - grafted varieties and winter-hardy skeleton-forming agents are used as the lower crown.
- The efficiency of use of the crop increases significantly. This is achieved by the difference in the ripening dates, due to which the fruits are consumed equally both in processed and in fresh form. This is especially true of plums, pears and apple trees. After all, having tasted a sweet fruit, you will surely want a sour one, and vice versa. Among other things, monosortovye fruits, as practice shows, are absolutely not lying.
- The crop itself is also getting larger. This is achieved due to the fact that varietal characteristics are different, pollination becomes better, flowering occurs at different times.
- In a short time, you can try and draw conclusions about a particular variety. In the end, then you can "make" a tree of your favorite varieties.
There is an opportunity to create a collection garden even on 1 acre.
How to grow a family tree yourself
In order to get different varieties on one tree, you will need:
- good scion;
- the ability to vaccinate;
- quality stock.
How is the graft vaccinated? First, cuttings are prepared, for this they are cut from the trees in the spring (until mid-March) or in the fall - before the juice goes. It is best to carry out the procedure in the fall, since during the winter the cuttings can freeze and become unusable. Many novice gardeners make the same mistake, they try to cut the stalk in one day and plant it immediately; naturally, nothing comes of it.
A tree grown from a seed of the same species as a scion or a wild bird can act as a skeletogen former.
Plum for a pear or an apple tree for a cherry cannot be grafted. But you can plant a plum on the turn, and a pear on the hawthorn, and vice versa.
As a rule, they are vaccinated with a well-developed 2-3-year-old seedling with thick and strong branches of the first order. All irregular branches must be cut into a ring. The stock looks like this - one central conductor and a tier of branches - 4 pieces. Moreover, they should be located at a distance of one and a half meters from the ground. It is recommended to plant no more than 5 varieties on a tree. Previously, each branch is cut at a distance of 30 cm from the trunk.
The timing of vaccination depends on several factors - weather conditions, climate and terrain. So, apple trees are planted from late April to mid-May, pears - mid-April - early May, stone fruit trees - late March - mid-April. You can also find out the best ways to plant fruit trees in summer.
Multi varietal hazelnuts
How to vaccinate
Features of vaccination depend on the thickness of the branches of the stock.
- If the stock is not much thicker than the handle, the graft is carried out in the lateral incision.
- If it is thicker, the branch will have to be cut and the vaccine is made over the bark.
- With the same thickness of the stock and scion, vaccination is carried out using improved or simple copying.
In the process of vaccination, it is recommended that all branches of the stock be replaced, otherwise it will grow and drown out all crown vaccinations.
Three-story and four-story seedlings
When growing three- or four-story seedlings, some features should be taken into account. So, fruit trees are cross-pollinated, and stone fruits can be self-infertile. Therefore, it is necessary to take care of the pollination of flowers. For this, it will be necessary to plant at least a couple of varieties of the same flowering period for each breed of plant.
But not all varieties are suitable for this purpose. They are subject to special requirements. With four-story seedlings, the situation is even more complicated. In this case, an intermediate rootstock insert of 20 cm is grafted onto the seed stock.
Suppose you decide to grow a garden tree from an apple tree and a pear. To do this, you will need to go through the following steps:
- First, stratified seeds are planted in a ridge. The distance between already grown plants should reach 7 cm.
- In the second year they are dug up and shortened by the roots. In July-August, seedlings are eyed with skeleton-forming varieties.
- In the third year, grafted seedlings are trimmed onto the bud of a variety in spring. Then there is the cultivation of oculants. In the fall they become annuals.
- In the spring, annuals are cut off.
- For the 5th year, the branches of the skeleton-forming variety are trimmed to the bud of the variety. As a result, by autumn, three-story seedlings are obtained. They can be planted in the garden.
You can get a three-story seedling only after 5 years. If the breed is stone fruit, time is reduced by a year.
How to care for a multi-varietal tree
Despite the large number of positive properties, multi-varietal trees have disadvantages. The first is the high price if you buy plants in the nursery. But this problem is easily solved if you grow trees yourself.
However, the cultivation process is longer and more laborious than that of monosorted seedlings.
The main features of the care are the normalization of shoots from cuttings and the removal of rootstock growth. In this case, it is necessary to direct new shoots away from the central part of the tree to form a crown. Do not forget to provide the tree with protection from various pests - weevils and leaf-eating, which can ruin the crown of the tree. For this, insecticides are used - Alatar, Confidor Maxi and others.
Multi-varietal (family) pear
If you decide to get 2 or more varieties on one tree, you should know that the process is quite complicated. But in the end, you get a winter-hardy and productive plant. Moreover, even in a small area it will be possible to grow those fruits that you like, which means that consumption will be more efficient. Of course, there is a risk that any branch will freeze, but the whole tree will not die, as this can happen with the mono-tree. At the same time, there is a chance to try a large number of varieties at once and choose those that are suitable for you according to indicators. It turns out that multi-varietal crops are not only more useful, but also more reliable.