Gumi is actively cultivated in Japan and China. In our country, the plant is not common. Loch multicolor dates back to the Cretaceous period.
His homeland is East Asia. At the moment, gumi seedlings are acquired and successfully cultivated in the Vladimir, Novgorod and Moscow regions. Cultivate culture in other areas. At the same time, it is impossible to say that the plant is common, it is not very popular.
Description of shrub sucker
The height of the gumi can reach 3 meters. The diameter of the crown is up to 2.5 meters. The bush gives the first fruits for the 3rd year. The plant receives nitrogen with the help of bacteria that "live" on the roots. The shrub is frost-resistant, withstands temperatures up to -30 degrees, if shelter was made. Even with frostbite, it quickly recovers and starts new shoots.
Plant Features and Photos
Gumi is a self-made plant. However, there are also self-infertile forms. Unlike other plants, the shrub is characterized by resistance to diseases and pests.
Shrub cultivation is due not only to harvest, but also from an aesthetic point of view. The bush will become a real decoration of the site.
Despite the fact that gumi belongs to deciduous plants, there are signs of evergreen in it. Old leaves coexist beautifully with new for 3 years. However, in the summer, the bush can drop leaves and fall into a dormant state.
With good care, the culture grows very fast. First, one large shoot appears, then the bush branches and, when the crop appears, branches to the side. Then new shoots appear. The shape of the plant is harmonious, forming pruning is not needed. The leaves are shiny and leathery, reminiscent of laurel.
The bush is especially good during fruiting. The color of the berries changes from green to red. In appearance, they resemble dogwood. The shape may be cylindrical or spherical.
Picking berries is a pleasure. When transporting, they do not give juice. During storage, the fruits do not dry out, but seem to dry out.
The root system of the bush is powerful and branched, extends beyond the bush. The roots are fibrous, they lie to a depth of 40 cm. There are nodules on the roots that contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Beginners often take them for root cancer and tear it off, but in vain. Without nodules, the plant will die. Gumi cultivation involves fertilizing. Liquid dressings are especially good, thanks to them, the fruits increase significantly.
The benefits of berry shrubs
The berry has a large number of amino acids, 7 of them are simply necessary for the human body. The fruits are so healthy that they are given to children as a vitamin supplement. The berry contains 9% tannin and pectin, sugar, calcium, phosphorus and potassium, as well as 8% ascorbic acid. In view of this, it has tonic and anti-inflammatory properties. This makes it possible to apply the fruits of gumi for cardiovascular diseases and stomach problems.
The leaves of the plant are brewed and then drunk like tea. They are rich in vitamin C and successfully treat colds. 100 grams of berries contain about 100 mg of vitamin C, which is much more than in apples.
How to plant and care
If the soil is acidic, one year before planting it must be done. The site for gumi is selected humidified, with a good level of illumination. All soil work is done in the fall. Landing is carried out in the spring - in April.
First, under digging, you need to make up to 15 kilograms of manure per square meter. Superphosphate fertilizer is also being carried out - 100 grams per square meter. Gummi roots are buried by 8 cm. Plants are placed strictly vertically. Seedlings are taken one- and two-year. In order for the crop to be good, 2 seedlings should be planted. In this case, the distance between them should reach 2 meters. Plant transplants are poorly tolerated. The aerial part of the seedlings after planting is trimmed at a height of 70 cm. This is necessary in order for the bush to branch.
Only young plants are sensitive to moisture. The adult plant is drought tolerant. Even if there is little rain in the summer, it will not stop growing, only the turgor on the leaves will decrease.
For winter, the bush needs to be covered. Sacking in this case does not fit, the plant is first bent to the ground, and then covered with leaves and brushwood.
A tree requires weed removal. The rest of the care is quite simple - watering, loosening the soil, feeding is applied. At the end of June it is necessary to prune the branches. Top dressing is introduced annually - 30 grams of double superphosphate, 8 kg of compost and 150 grams of wood ash will fall on 1 bush. In dry weather, the gumis are watered and mulch is introduced.
The fruits of the plant do not ripen at the same time, so they will have to be harvested several times. Harvesting takes place in mid-July. Multiflowered sucker is used to make drying, stewed fruit, raw jam and jams.
Multiple goof can be propagated by dividing the bush, seeds and layering. Particular attention must be paid to the seed method, since it is the simplest. At the same time, plants differ from maternal, but more often have more useful properties.
- First, the fruits are harvested. Then they are cleaned of the pulp and put in paper bags until the stratification.
- Next, the seeds are mixed with sawdust and buried in the soil to a depth of 30 cm.
In winter, a meter-long layer of snow should be at the indicated location. Then, 1 month before planting, the seeds must be dug up and placed in a plastic film with a substrate. At the same time, they need periodic moistening.
- Next, the seeds are planted in boxes and kept at home or in the greenhouse. If the care is good, the seedlings will grow to 50 cm over the summer.
- In winter, they need shelter. Among other things, they can be put in a warm room for growing.
- A transplant into the open ground can be done only after the roots grow to 20 cm and at least 3 shoots appear.
- If you store the fruits of gumi in frozen form, they will remain for 8 months.
- Regardless of the size of the seedlings, the pits should be large - up to 60 cm deep, with a diameter - up to one and a half meters. At the bottom of the pit, it is recommended to put 700 grams of wood ash, organic fertilizers - 30 kg, 300 grams of double superphosphate. If the soil is acidic - a pound of lime. Important! Shrub roots should not touch fertilizers.
- If the plants are young, they are fertilized 2 times a year: in the spring - nitrogen fertilizers and humus, after harvesting - wood ash and superphosphate.
- Planting is carried out on any soil, with the exception of poor oxygen and waterlogged soils.
- Watering the seedlings is 25 liters per pit.
- Pits have been prepared since the fall.
- The optimal time for landing is from March to April.
Gumi is a useful and ornamental plant. The bush reaches a height of 3 meters. Berries not only look very beautiful and bright, but also have a whole complex of beneficial amino acids. Growing is not a hassle. The main thing is to properly plant and timely water and fertilize.