Aphids belong to the order of the half-winged. It has a tiny size - from 0.5 to 2 mm, the ovoid body is green or black. There are winged and wingless species. Insects move slowly, which does not prevent them from capturing the entire garden in a matter of months. Each wingless female gives birth to 150 individuals every 2 weeks.
Aphids live on leaves, stems, buds, shoots of plants.
Harm from aphids
The insect does not damage the fruits, but it destroys the green mass of plants by sucking juice from leaves, buds and buds. As a result, leaves curl, buds and buds fall or change shape. This leads to the fact that the yield drops sharply.
Affected plants become weakened and in cold winters may not suffer frosts and die. In addition, they become vulnerable to many diseases, including viral and fungal.
Aphids suck out a lot of juice and give it away in the form of sticky sugar secretions. As a result, the plant is covered with this sweet dew, its respiration is deteriorating. Fungi develop well on sugar deposits. Thus, the pest provokes fungal diseases of plants, which in themselves can lead to their death.
Where does the pest settle
Tle, by and large, there is no difference where to settle - she has no favorite plants. It often affects fruit trees, berry and ornamental shrubs, vegetables: aphid feels good on cucumbers and currants, gooseberries, and apple trees. Often aphids infect flower beds. But especially willingly lives on roses, bulbs, carnations, legumes and chrysanthemums. In this case, green aphids settle on roses and chrysanthemums, black - on cornflowers and various legumes.
Signs of infection
The following signs will indicate that aphid has started in the garden:
- twisted leaves on plants;
- sticky branches and leaves;
- irregular shape of shoots and buds;
- the appearance of a large number of ants.
The latter is due to the fact that ants use aphids as a kind of "cows", giving a favorite ant treat - sugar secretions, the so-called "honey dew". Ants protect aphids from other insects - you can often see how they crawl together on currants and gooseberries.
Over time, the leaves begin to turn yellow, the buds of the flowers fall off.
Chemical methods of control
If there are too many aphids, you will have to resort to chemicals. Although I must say that it is better to do without them, since chemicals destroy not only aphids, but also its natural enemies.
In the fight against a pest, three types of toxic substances must be used - contact, intestinal and general action. Contact preparations penetrating the skin include kalbofos and fufanon. Intestinal drugs enter the pests with food and cause paralysis and death. The drugs that combine these properties work best - acarin, bankol.
General or systemic drugs penetrate the plant itself and circulate in it for about a month. They are not washed away by rain. Aphids, eating a plant, die itself. Such drugs include Tanrek, Biotlin, Aktara.
However, we must remember that it is impossible to process plants with these means during fruit setting and ripening of the crop. Otherwise, it will be in the fruits that become poisonous to humans. Processing with systemic drugs must be stopped a month and a half before harvest.
Against aphids, decoctions from plants with an insecticidal effect work very well. To this end, you can use wormwood, tansy, tops of potatoes and tomatoes, yarrow, mustard, pepper, dandelion, garlic, marigolds. This method is especially suitable if aphids on cucumbers and other vegetables appear during flowering and fruit ovary. Plants do not have toxic properties and can not poison a person, but they effectively fight aphids. After 2-3 treatments, the insect on the cucumbers disappears. Black aphid is afraid of a rhubarb decoction.
Plants are treated with infusion of herbs with an interval of 10 days.
Good results are obtained from the infusion of garlic and onions - 30 g of garlic are crushed, mixed with 4 g of laundry soap and a liter of water. This tool can spray plants.
A solution of salt (80 g per 1 liter of water), a decoction of wood ash (300 g per 10 liters of water), a decoction of chilli pepper (100 g of fresh pepper per 1 liter of water, boil for 60 minutes and then dilute to 10 liters) helps a lot. To make plants more resistant to aphids, a nettle decoction helps to spray the plants every few days.
To prevent aphids from starting, the following measures must be taken:
- inspect seedlings and planting material before planting to exclude infected ones;
- plant dill, parsley, carrots around the beds - these plants attract beetles, which are exterminators of aphids;
- mulch the paths with wood shavings - an earwig that feeds on aphids settles in the wood shavings;
- make birdhouses to attract birds that also feed on aphids;
- fight with garden ants;
- in the flower beds to plant lavender and thyme, the smell of which repels aphids.
We must carefully feed the plants, trying not to overfeed them with fertilizers. But it is also not necessary to allow soil depletion - aphids choose overfed and weakened plants with great pleasure.
To prevent aphids from growing, weed regularly, loosen the soil and mulch it.
How to deal with aphids
You can get rid of aphids. In this matter, regularity and consistency are important. We must begin to fight pests at the first sign of their appearance - then the fight will be successful and will not take much time.