One of the ornamental shrubs that can grow in shading is a snowberry, belonging to the family of honeysuckle. The name of the plant comes from two Latin words - symphorien and carpos, meaning in translation "nearby" and "fruits". The name itself indicates the peculiarity of the close arrangement of fruits on the branches of a snowy berry. The severity of snow-white berries leads to the bending of thin shoots of the plant, which makes it even more elegant.
Species and varieties
On the territory of North America, there are 15 species of snowman. The most famous decorative varieties include only a few plants.
- The most common and unpretentious is the white snow-berry, cultivated since the 19th century. It has yellowish-gray thin branches that hang to the ground, forming a hemispherical crown. In early spring, blue-green leaves of an ovoid or oval shape, 6 cm long, open from the buds. Also, the leaves of the plant differ in a flat edge, and sometimes young leaves have small lobes. Bell-shaped small flowers of greenish-pink color are collected in groups in the axils of the leaves, most densely located on the tips of the branches. Flowering plants occur from July to September without interruption. In August and September, round fruits about 1 cm in diameter appear near the flowers. Sometimes they remain on the shoots during the winter. The described species of snow-berry is an unpretentious plant species, quite loyal to the composition of the soil. It may well grow even on calcareous and rocky soils. Gas-, smoke-resistant, also tolerates drought and shade, which is why it is often used for landscaping.
- The Chinese snowy berry does not have snow-white fruits; on the contrary, they are almost black. However, in Russia this species is not grown.
- Snowflake purple is distinguished by purple fruits. He is very famous in Western Europe and a little less here. In North America, which is the birthplace of the bush, it has its own name - "Native American currant", "coral berry". This species has dark green, rounded leaves and thin shoots, which are very pubescent at a young age. Flowers huddle under the leaves in dense clusters. The color of the fruit is purple-red-bluish, and the size in diameter is 6 mm. This species tolerates winter frosts somewhat worse than its cousin, the snow-white berry, but it can be grown under domestic conditions. The most popular varieties: Variegatus (yellow border on the leaves); Taff s Silver Edge (white border on the edge of the sheet); White Hedge (non-bending, strong branches, well suited for organizing hedges). You may also be interested in an article that describes the steps and features of creating a hedge.
- Chenogo, a hybrid of the pink rounded snowman, began to enjoy great popularity. This species perfectly tolerates frosts, and all because of its small size. The fruits of the plant are inedible, but they are excellent honey plants. In addition to pink fruits, this species has spiky leaves and long shoots, very easily rooted.
- However, the most beautiful in their decorative properties are recognized varieties of Doorenbosa snow-berry. These plants have bright pink fruits, and they themselves were obtained by hybridization in Holland. These varieties are very decorative, but less frost-resistant, and therefore it will be necessary to shelter them for the winter. In more detail about this important process, we described in a previously published material the preparation of ornamental shrubs for winter.
Planting and growing
- For planting, it is necessary to prepare the material by digging it with a lump of earth. If necessary, the bushes of the snow-berry remain "in the trench", located obliquely in the trench, they are covered with earth. If the plant is bought in a nursery, then for transportation its roots are wrapped in thick paper. Before planting, such a bush needs to be dipped in an "earthen chatterbox".
- Especially good looks a snowman in a hedge, and for organizing such, it is best to use plants 3 to 5 years old. It is necessary to initially tighten the rope where it is expected to place the fence. Next, a trench is prepared with a width of 50 cm and a depth of 50 - 70 cm. Shrubs are placed in the trench, one per 1 running meter. Then the bush is covered with earth, and the soil is densely compacted to prevent the formation of voids.
- If you decide to plant a bush of a snow berry one at a time or to create a decorative group, then you need to consider that the area of one of them will be 0.6 - 1.5 square meters. m. Therefore, plants should be placed at a distance of 1 - 1.5 m from each other. For single bushes up to 5 years, pits with a depth of 0.5 - 0.7 m are prepared.
- Prepare planting pits should be in advance, especially if clay soils or heavy loam in the area are observed. It is necessary to add fertile soil to such land, which can be obtained by mixing humus, sand, peat and compost. 300 g of superphosphate, 300 g of dolomite flour or lime, 500 g of wood ash are also added to the mixture.
Care and trimming
- Watering the planted bushes is best done in the evenings, rarely, but plentifully. The irrigation rate for middle-aged shrubs should be about 20 liters per square meter. m
- When pruning shrubs, you need to consider on which shoots flower buds were formed. Most often they are laid on the shoots of the current year.
- The best time for pruning a snowman is spring, just before the kidneys begin to dissolve. At this time, the shoots are shortened either by half or by a quarter.
- It is also necessary to remove the thickened and completely eliminate the aging branches. Places where the cut was carried out must be processed: grease with garden var.
- Also, the snowman needs regular sanitary pruning, which implies the elimination of broken and dried twigs. After this treatment, the shrub is very easy to recover.
- On the bushes, reaching 8 - 10 years, small leaves and flowers, short shoots appear. Snowberry tolerates anti-aging pruning perfectly. And even with abundant pruning almost "under the stump", which is carried out at a height of 40-60 cm, strong young shoots form from sleeping buds during the summer season.
Pests and diseases
Snow-berry is practically not affected by diseases and various pests. The greatest danger is represented only by fungal diseases: gray rot of fruits, powdery mildew, which are very actively developing with high humidity. To prevent these unpleasant diseases, it is good to use a 3% solution of Bordeaux fluid. Powdery mildew can be defeated with a 0.5% solution of soda ash with the addition of laundry soap.
Spraying with such a mixture should be done before leaflets appear.
Snowberry, shrub features
Snowman can multiply in different ways: seeds, cuttings, dividing the bush, layering, shoots.
This plant gives an abundant root shoot, and due to this, dense large clumps are formed. Due to this feature, the bush can expand, even "move" from the planting site. However, this phenomenon needs to be monitored: dig up shoots or use as material for propagation. In the beginning of spring or autumn, the snow-berry easily propagates with the help of root shoots, which at the same time escapes the bush from thickening.
At the beginning of autumn or veins, during leaf fall, an overgrown plant bush is dug up, divided into several parts.
Layers can be obtained by hilling the bush. You can take the shoots into a special canvas, and then pin them with wire. Buried shoots subsequently take root, and then turn into a separate bush with a good root system. The plant is trimmed with a secateurs and transferred to a permanent residence.
Also, a snowman can be propagated by cuttings. Stem cuttings are taken green (summer) and lignified (winter). The second option for harvesting cuttings is carried out in late autumn or early winter, after which the cuttings should be stored in the basement in the sand. In spring, they are cut into 10 - 20 cm with 3 - 5 buds. The cut above is made above the kidney, and below - obliquely.
Green cuttings are taken from the bush in early June, after flowering plants. In this case, only large and well-developed shoots that have reached maturity are suitable. For cutting, you can take shoots from bushes under 10 years old.
Harvesting shoots should be early in the morning and after cutting, immediately place in a container of water. Both green and lignified shoots are planted in boxes with nutrient soil that mixes with river sand. Planting depth should be approximately 0.5 cm. After that, the boxes are placed in a greenhouse with shaded glass or a greenhouse. During cuttings, shoots need good watering and high humidity.
Already in the fall, the shoots will develop a good, stable root system, and they can be placed in the ground, not forgetting to cover the leaves and spruce branches for the first winter.
It is possible to propagate a snowman with seeds, but it is worth noting that this process is quite complicated and requires a lot of time and labor.
Initially, you need to pick up good peeled seeds. To do this, they are separated from the fruit and the pulp is removed. To obtain suitable seeds for sowing, it is recommended to squeeze them in a nylon bag. Then the mass is shaken in a small container with a small amount of water. Seeds are placed inside the container and gradually settle to the bottom, while the pulp, on the contrary, rises above. After this, the seeds must be dried well and put into bags.
An excellent result of seed germination is observed with winter sowing. Since the seeds of this plant are very small, there is a risk of losing them during snowmelt. That is why it is recommended to sow seeds not in open ground beds, but in flower pots or boxes. A fertile soil consisting of humus, peat, river sand in equal proportions is most suitable for sowing. Sowing should be superficial, it is necessary to sprinkle the seeds a little sand, tightly pressed glass. Watering the seeds should be done carefully, adjusting the pressure so that the seeds are not washed out of the soil.
The first shoots will appear in the spring, and by the end of this season they can already be dived.
Also, seeds can be sown in the spring, in which case this process is carried out in a greenhouse or greenhouse. In March-April, you should prepare boxes with soil and sow them with fresh seeds. To speed up germination, it is better to stratify the seeds.
After sprouts, they need regular watering with a watering can equipped with a fine mesh. You should also provide for the protection of delicate plants from cold air and sunlight. Such shoots can be dived already in mid-June.