The name of the anise plant comes from the word Greek anison, the following names are also common in the area: ganus, ganizh, anison, anisuli, jire. Common anise, or sweet anise, vegetable anise, is a herbaceous univalent plant originating from the Celery family, whose old name is Umbrella.
Plant structure and appearance
Anise ordinary has a rod root system, which is located at a depth of 20-30 cm of land. The stem reaches 50-70 cm in height, is finely furrowed, erect, hollow, shortly pubescent and branching from above.
Basal leaves are located on long petioles, they are whole and coarse. Stem leaves are on short petioles, the upper ones are sessile, have linear segments. The flowers of the plant are small, white in color and are collected in simple umbrellas, forming complex umbrellas.
The fruit is a pear-shaped or ovoid dvushemyanka of a grayish-brown or greenish-gray shade, slightly pubescent.
Outside, each half of the fruit has five thin and longitudinal ribs with hollows. On the outside, there are many small tubules in the fetal wall that contain essential oil, and on the flat side there are 2-3 larger tubules that also contain this beneficial substance. When ripening, the fruits fall into halves. If they were thrashing poorly, then there is a high rate of crushed fruits, quickly losing valuable essential oil.
Fruits grown in Russia or Germany are thicker and shorter, and in Spain and Italy they are dark and long.
The mystery of the origin of the plant
Until now, not a single botanist knows where this mysterious plant, ordinary anise, came from on our planet. Some consider it the homeland of Asia Minor, others insist that Egypt and the countries of the eastern part of the Mediterranean. Anise run wild now can be found in Asia, Europe, North America, and wild anise grows only in Greece.
Anise has been known in culture for a long time. Back in the 12th century, it was cultivated in Spain, starting in the 17th century - in England. The culture was brought to us in 1830, and a plant grew in three counties of the Voronezh province. Before the start of World War I, the crop area of this crop reached 5160 ha in the Voronezh province. In the pre-revolutionary years, essential oil and plant fruits were exported abroad.
Now anise is grown in different countries of the world: North America, Argentina, Mexico, India, Japan, China, Afghanistan, Turkey, Italy, Bulgaria, the Netherlands, Spain and France. In Russia, the territory of anise cultivation is concentrated mainly in the Voronezh and Belgorod regions.
Sweet Anise: varieties
There is a wide variety of varieties of anise. Most often, each country has its own. For example, Thuringer anis grows in Germany, in Italy there is an Albai variety, in Romania De Crangu, and in France Toutaine Anis. The Russian state registry lists very old varieties Alekseevsky 68 and Alekseevsky 1231. They also have separate vegetable anise varieties, such as Umbrella, Magic Elixir, Blues, Moscow Semko. However, there is no information on the content of essential oils in these varieties and their productivity.
What is ordinary anise
Heat-loving, but cold-resistant
No matter how strange and paradoxical this may sound, anise is a cold-resistant plant, but heat-loving at the same time. Therefore, for good plant development, it is better to select places with optimal sunlight on the southeastern and southern slopes. In order for the crop to be plentiful and stable, the sum of the positive temperatures should be 222-2400 degrees Celsius.
Anise is propagated using seeds, the growth of which occurs at a temperature of + 6-8 degrees, but the optimal temperature for the plant is + 20-25. Despite the low threshold temperature level, it is not worth rushing with sowing seeds, since cold soil contributes to the slow growth and development of diseases. If there is a lack of moisture or a low temperature during seed germination, then seedlings appear only on 25-30 days. However, young plants tolerate very well even minus air temperatures from -7 to -2 degrees.
When swelling, the fruits of anise absorb 150-160% moisture from their own weight, and during this period, sufficient hydration is necessary. Unfinished and prolonged growth occurs if there are essential oil tubules around the embryo containing essential oil that inhibits plant growth.
In ordinary anise, a rather long vegetation period is observed, equal to 120-130 days. The greatest need for water occurs during the beginning of stalking and before flowering. During the latter event, dry weather is preferred. Under such conditions, insects pollinating the plant are active, which, accordingly, affects its productivity.
It is better to plant anise after vegetable crops, excluding members of the umbelliferous family. Anise umbrellas bloom in the morning, and by noon the largest number of flowers bloom. During seed ripening, dry and warm weather is needed, while cold and rainy weather leads to inflorescence disease, low fruit setting, poor ripening, and a decrease in the amount of essential oil in the fruit. With strong gusts of wind and waterlogging of the soil, the plant easily lies down.
The healing properties of anise
Growing anise on a personal plot
Anise grows on household plots on any soil, excluding only moist, heavy, clay or solonetzic. You can plant in places previously occupied by legumes, vegetables, or potatoes. It is advisable to dig the area 22-25 cm before the onset of frost. We also need to destroy weeds in the fall.
In the spring, after drying of the soil, the site must be leveled with a rake, loosened (4-5 cm), leveled and slightly compacted. Fertilizers are introduced in the fall when digging up the earth with the calculation of 25-30 g of phosphorus fertilizers and 25 g of nitrogen per square meter. Nitrogen fertilizers should be fed during plant stalking at a dose of 10-15 g per square meter.
For sowing, DachaDeco.ru advises using one- or two-year-old seeds. If the storage lasted longer, there is a possibility of a decrease in seed germination, and after five years they become completely non-viable.
Before sowing, anise seeds germinate for 5-7 days. To do this, moisten them with warm water, collect them in a heap or wrap them in a cloth. Keep in this state should be until the formation of 3-5% of seeds 1 mm roots. After the seeds are slightly dried and then sown on the garden bed. We recommend that you familiarize yourself with the material on how to prepare the soil for seedlings.
Seeds should be sown in spring, sowing depth - 3-4 cm, between rows should remain 35-45 cm. You can, in general, sow continuous rows, the distance between which is only 15 cm. The choice of a particular method of sowing depends on fertility of the soil of the site and the presence of root sprouting and rhizome weeds in it.
In order for the plant to be powerful and bring a large crop, the soil must be loose, it is also necessary to remove all weeds on time and regularly. Careful and timely care for crops during the period from sowing seeds to the beginning of stalking is of great importance. At this time, anise is still very weak and can not independently control weeds. This article will tell you more about planting and caring for anise.
In addition to all the useful properties of anise ordinary, it is also an excellent honey plant. It should be removed after gaining a greenish tint by the seeds.
The plant is cut at a height of 10-12 cm from the ground, after which it is laid out for drying.
After 3-5 days, the seeds are threshed and cleaned of impurities.
Anise is quite susceptible to the effects of diseases and pests. The most dangerous diseases are powdery mildew and cercosporosis, manifested in the form of the death of the lower leaves. To a lesser extent, gray rot, rust, sclerotiniosis are observed. In industrial plantings, fungicides are often used to combat diseases and harmful insects, but for home purposes it is better to seek eco-farming. The best guarantor of good plant health will be the acquisition of healthy seeds, transplanting anise from one place to another, burning plant debris, if the disease was discovered. And, of course, you should take care of the plant and monitor its immunity. With the help of environmentally friendly and modern growth regulators. At the same time, remember that anise should not be overfed with nitrogen fertilizers and should not be sown too thickly. We recommend reading the article on fennel or sweet anise.