The botanists of the world have not yet agreed on what Latin name to assign to this plant as a generic one. In various publications, the highlander from the Buckwheat family is called Persicaria, Reynotria, Fallopia, Tovara, most often Polygonum. The last name comes from the Greek "polys" - a lot, "gonos" - the knee, this term is assigned to the plant for a cranked, knotty stem.
Highlander - decorative flower
Highlander has approximately 300 species. More often it is a grassy, one- or perennial plant, less often a liana or a shrub. Widely distributed throughout the globe, grows in forests, on river banks, meadows and highlands.
Stems open or erect, occasionally curly. The leaves are regular, simple. Small flowers are collected in racemose or paniculate inflorescences. The fruit is a nut with many seeds.
The mountaineer is interestingly surprising in its diverse species and abundance under a wide variety of natural conditions. He can meet you on the street in the village in the form of grass-ants, or he can create three-meter thickets of Sakhalin buckwheat. It grows modestly near swamps and lakes, and can proudly stretch out to a 15-meter vine, which quickly wraps around buildings, hedges, trees growing in the neighborhood.
About 20 species of this amazing plant are used in decoration. It is quite unpretentious, successfully growing in different zones, perfectly transferring pruning and maintaining decorativeness all season.
Decorative species of plants
Polygonum alpinum in the wild is found in mountain meadows and grassy steppes of the Northern Hemisphere in the temperate zone. It grows as a powerful spreading bush one and a half meters high. Numerous stems branched at the top. Foliage lanceolate-ovate. The roots are strongly creeping, cord-like.
It blooms very plentifully in the middle of summer. White flowers are numerous, in large panicles. Highlander frost-resistant, does not need shelter for the winter.
The plant is a weed, aggressive, unpretentious, but very decorative. It’s good to plant it near household buildings, fences. Looks beautiful in cut flowers.
Aconogonon ajanense grows in Japan, Siberia, the Far East, and China. It can be seen on gravel screes, rocky slopes in the subalpine and alpine mountain zones.
The plant is perennial, reaches 40 cm in height. The stem is erect, with widespread branches, covered with short hairs, sometimes with the addition of long hairs. The leaves are elliptical, pointed, broadly wedge-shaped at the base. They grow on short petioles, can be hairy, sometimes bare. Flowers form brushes located on the tops of branches and the main stem.
Perianth pinkish or white.
The birthplace of Polygonum vaccinifolium is the Himalayas. This is a grassy creeping perennial growing up to 15 cm.
Forms large groups. In late summer, blooms in shallow pink. Flowers gather in dense inflorescences.
It is frost-resistant enough, but protection against moisture is required in winter.
Polygonum weyrichii you can see in the wild on the grassy slopes of the Kuril Islands, Sakhalin, Japan. It forms thickets up to 2 m high. The stems are branched, leaves are oval, elongated, sessile. Creeping roots creeping. Blooms in late summer. The racemose inflorescences consist of very small nondescript white flowers. Highlander is winter-hardy, no shelter required.
The plant is very unpretentious, although it prefers rich loams from soils. It is good to decorate fences and outbuildings with it.
Polygonum viviparum grows in Europe, North America, Asia. It grows in swamps and marshy meadows, in mountains and forests.
The plant is perennial, about 50 cm tall. The upright stalk is simple, bare. Leaves are flat, sometimes with curled edges, leaflets are hard. At the root of the foliage, it is elliptical, pointed, round or wedge-shaped at the base, petioles are longer than the lamina. Stem leaves linear, on short petioles. Inflorescences are friable, narrow. Perianth pale pink or white. The fruits are trihedral.
The viviparous mountaineer blooms in June. Sometimes, instead of flowers, small bulbs are formed, thanks to which the plant multiplies rapidly.
India became the birthplace of Polygonum orientale. This species is annual, grassy, rather high (up to 2 m). It blooms with small red flowers that gather in drooping panicle inflorescences. It grows well on nutritious, deeply cultivated, moist soils.
The species is propagated by spring (in May) sowing of seeds immediately to a permanent place. In addition to decorating fences and walls, they are used to create the background when forming mixborders.
Polygonum capilatum is little known, but at the same time it is a very elegant annual plant, which has a rare quality among summer people - it is able to quickly cover the soil.
The plant is thermophilic, grows well in sunny places, loves moisture. In partial shade, the color of the leaves becomes less decorative.
The mountaineer abundantly branches, spreads, grows small - 15 cm in height. Small leaves, with reddish stripes and spots. Inflorescences are small, round, collected from small light pink flowers located above the leaves. Highlander is decorative from June until the frost.
Well propagated by seeds, cuttings. Sow seeds in March for seedlings in pots. After 10-14 days, seedlings will appear. It is better to plant in open ground at the beginning of June, having sprouts of 15-20 cm. When drying the soil, water it. During the growth period, 2-3 times feed the plant.
From the highlander you can form a beautiful border, as it tolerates pruning well.
You can also drop off on an empty place in the mixborder, in a garden vase, from which shoots will hang beautifully.
Polygonum polymorpha is native to East Asia. This is a very unusual plant - a large, luxurious perennial bush growing up to 2 m. The stems are straight, strong, hollow, highly branched at the top. The root system is very powerful, goes to a depth of 30 cm. The leaves are oblong-lanceolate. The inflorescences are huge, paniculate, complex, formed from small white flowers with a spicy aroma. The plant blooms in June and continues to bloom until half of August. Fluffy panicles retain their decorative effect for a long time.
Highlander is unpretentious and unpretentious; in winter it is not necessary to shelter; it grows perfectly on any soil.
Polygonum affine is from Nepal, the Himalayas. This species is perennial, grassy, reaching 25 cm in height. The stems rise. Leaflets are oval-lanceolate or oblong, evergreen. In dense spike-shaped inflorescences up to 10 cm long, the flowers are pale pink, small, darken by the end of flowering to a pinkish-red hue. A related mountaineer retains decorativeness after flowering due to the fruits and leaves acquiring a dark red color.
Beautiful decorative varieties:
- Darieeling Red - with deep pink flowers;
- Donald Lowndes - with a pink-red tint of flowers.
A related mountaineer prefers shady places, however, grows well in the sun. It is not picky about soils, it just does not like acidifying them. If the sites are well drained, then it develops well. Resistant to drought and does not tolerate stagnant groundwater.
It is frost-resistant, but it does not tolerate snowless winters very well. For prevention, it is better to cover with coniferous spruce branches. Wintered leaves in the spring need to pritenit.
The mountaineer is perfect for ground cover groups, landing on wide terraces in rocky gardens. Also can be used to cut and create dry bouquets.
It is decorative when decorating the coastal zones of small reservoirs when planting next to low perennials, bulbous plants. It forms a dense green carpet, elegant inflorescences wonderfully combine with medium-sized hosts, astilbe, and the Virginian tradescantia. It should be borne in mind that, growing strongly on fertile soils, the mountaineer can suppress less hardy species.
Polygonum divaricatum originated in Mongolia, China, and the Far East. This species is perennial, has many stems up to one and a half meters high, with brownish bark. Leaflets are lanceolate, upper ones up to 6 cm long, lower ones longer - up to 10 cm. Small flowers are whitish, gather in highly branched dense panicles. Due to the wide ramification, the highlander got this name.
Polygonum sachalinense is otherwise called Sakhalin buckwheat. It grows respectively in southern Sakhalin, and is also found in the Kuril Islands and in Japan.
It is a herbaceous plant, perennial, with a creeping root. The stems are hollow, straight, strong, up to 3 m, brown or green. The foliage is large, about 20 cm wide leaf blade and 30 cm long, broadly oval, on a short petiole. Whitish-creamy flowers of small size form 20-centimeter panicled inflorescences. Sakhalin mountaineer blooms in July. The fruit is a dark brown trihedral nut.
The Sakhalin mountaineer is grown to decorate and disguise farm buildings, to form thickets. At the same time, keep in mind that it is growing rapidly, its development must be restrained, since the Sakhalin giant is able to capture large territories. Usually it’s enough to dig in the stops to a depth of 30 cm.
The birthplace of the Polygonum amplexicaule was the mountain meadows of the Himalayas. This bushy perennial plant has straight tall stems (up to 1.2 m), wide lanceolate leaves, yellowing in autumn. Decoration of the bush is bright spikelets-inflorescences that appear in mid-July and grow red until the end of summer. The rhizome is powerful, horizontally growing, slowly developing, and the bush grows quite compactly.
When you plant a svezhevidnogo highlander, deepen the kidneys of the rhizome 8-10 cm from the surface of the earth to protect against freezing. In the fall, insulate the bush, for which you need to spud it with earth and cover with lutrasil.
In the decoration, spectacular varieties of this highlander are used:
- Album - the color of the inflorescences is white;
- High Society - raspberry flowers;
- Roseum - accordingly has pink flowers;
- Jo and Guido's form - “boasts” large beautiful flowers of scarlet hue;
- Inverleith is a dwarf plant with bright red inflorescences.
Polygonum virginianum is a very unusual and beautiful perennial. He has colorful foliage, for which he is appreciated in decorative landscaping. Greenish-white flowers appear late in the summer and do not add significance.
To form bright decorative foliage, it is recommended to plant in sunny places, allowing for light partial shade. It tolerates drought not bad, but it is better that the soil is moist.
To achieve the greatest effect, it is better to plant in large groups.
Different varieties differ in color of foliage:
- Lance Corpora - yellowish-green leaves with rich reddish-brown spots in the center;
- Painter's Palette - variegate leaves, with black and red markings, white stripes. Late summer, air stems appear with a large number of red flower beads, which adds some spectacular shrub.
Small-headed Highlander "Red Dragon"
The "Red Dragon" (Persicaria microcephala 'Red Dragon') originated in China. It is actively used in floriculture, as it is not aggressive, unlike relatives, it grows slowly, does not form seeds.
A perennial plant has parameters of 90 cm in height and in width. Dark red shoots appear in early spring, heart-shaped, pointed, beautiful plum-red leaves with a metallic sheen bloom on them. The foliage is velvety, looks spectacular on red stems. In summer it becomes greener, while the red edge and the three-color silver-green-brown coloring remain. On hot nights, the color of the leaves is not so bright and saturated. Flowers blooming in August-September are small, white, and have no decorative value.
Highlander is undemanding to conditions, soils, even grows on heavy clay. Although it prefers moist soils, it can adapt well to dry conditions.
In winter it is advisable to shelter in severe frosts.
In ornamental gardening, it is good to plant in a group with plants with silver foliage, yellow flowers.
Recently grown variety "Silver Dragon", different from the "Red Dragon" more silvery leaves with a red edge.
The Japanese highlander (Polygonum cuspidatum Persicaria japonica), despite the name, came from East Asia. In the state of Washington (USA) is listed as a weed.
2 varieties are common:
- Variegata. In spring, this variety has leaves with shoots of bright coral color, slowly changing to green with many white spots that merge into entire sectors, all this gives it a fantastic look. Sometimes plants with creamy white leaves are obtained.
For the good development of the bush, constant foliar top dressing is required, since chlorophyll is not enough. Bushes are stable, compact, they do not need to be tied. Likes partial shade and good humidity of the earth. Over the summer it grows to 120 cm, in winter the shoots die off completely.
- Highlander Japanese compact. It differs in bright purple petioles, stems and veins of leaves. The leaves of the young plant are purple, then turn green, leaving a raspberry edging on the edge, which disappears closer to autumn. The compact mountaineer looks beautiful during the flowering period: light coral flowers are then replaced by bright raspberry fruit boxes.
Highlander Sakhalin (video)
The homeland of Polygonum aubertii was Western China. This is a shrubby vine, low, curly. The trunk lignifies slightly, the shoots are even smaller.
Leaflets are ovoid, with wavy edges, initially reddish, later bright green.
Numerous brushes formed in the upper part of the shoots consist of greenish-pale, sometimes pink, small flowers. Forms a fluffy flowering solid wall. The fruits are inconspicuous, whitish, small.
Propagate the plant by seeds. It develops well in fertile, moderately moist soils, can grow in partial shade. In winter, in the cold, the aboveground part dies, then quickly grows.
In decorative gardening, it is valued highly for dense bright green foliage, planted to create low hedges, landscaped the lower part of the walls with a mountaineer.
Polygonum baldschuanicum is also called Baljuana buckwheat. He came from Central Asia. This is a vine with stems growing up to 15 m.
Young shoots are green, smooth, turn gray with age.
Shirokooovalny leaves are pointed, at the base spear-shaped or heart-shaped, light green. White flowers have a pinkish-lilac hue, they are small in size, gather in fairly large panicle inflorescences. Sometimes it blooms twice: in May-June and September-October.