The white eastern pine, or otherwise the Weymouth pine, is a large tree of the pine genus and belongs to the Pine family. In natural habitats found in the north-eastern regions of North America.
This tree reaches from 30 to 67 m in height, the trunk thickness is from 100 to 180 cm. The crown has an initially conical shape, but after that it is converted into a rounded, irregular in shape.
The bark of a white pine is light gray in color, but gradually coarsens and darkens with age, cracks appear on it, plates of irregular shape with a purple hue. Thin young shoots are brown-green in color and a little tarry. Large branches of the tree diverge on the sides and up, and thin smooth, pale brown in color, eventually acquiring a gray hue.
The buds are light brown, ovoid-cylindrical, again a little tarry. The needles stretch upward, gathering in bundles of five needles. Their length is about 6-10 cm. They are straight or slightly curved, very flexible, have a dark green tint or bluish green, becoming lighter towards the bottom.
Male cones are elliptical and yellow in color. Females, before opening, are narrowly cylindrical or cylindrical, and then acquire an ovoid-cylindrical shape.
Cones of this pine ripen twice a year, and after dropping the seeds fall off themselves.
Weimouth pine is common under natural conditions in northeastern North America, as well as in southeastern regions of Canada, on the French islands of Miquelon and St. Pierre. Some variations of the plant live in Guatemala and Mexico. Weimutov pine prefers very well-dried soils, as well as a humid and somewhat cool climate.
Back in the 18th century, this tree was used as material for building ships by the British Royal Navy. In 1620, Captain George Weymouth brought the pine to Britain, but the attempt to grow it failed because the plant did not take root on Foggy Albion and was destroyed by the disease. Currently, the plant is grown for forestry, both in natural conditions and outside the natural habitat, often used in construction.
Weymouth pine: varieties
- Weimutov’s pine “Minima” is a dwarf bush-like plant species that stretches only 0.8-1 meters high, while the diameter of the crown is 1.5 meters. The growth of the shrub is small, per year - 5-7 cm. The crown is wide, dense and symmetrical. The needles of the plant are very saturated bright green, but hard, dense. At the end of the summer season it becomes bluish-green.
This type of white eastern pine is recommended for decoration of supporting walls, slopes, forest edges, Japanese, rocky and heather gardens, alpine hills. He loves moist, well-lit, fresh and drained soil. Very negatively related to lack of moisture, winter-resistant.
- Weimutov pine "Makopin". This is a dwarf handicap of pine, presented in the form of a shrub form. In height, it is 1-1.5 meters, it also grows very slowly: no more than 8 cm in one year. The shape of the crown is very regular, completely symmetrical, rounded in shape or wide-pyramidal. Young cones have a green tint, mature ones are brown. The needles of the bush are thin, long, very soft, thick, bluish-green.
This species of Weymouth pine tolerates shade well, prefers drained, nutritious, moderately moist soils. Sandy loam and loam will be an excellent option. Differs in high frost resistance.
It is often used to decorate small household territories. Grows as a tapeworm, and also feels great in coniferous, mixed groups and rock gardens.
- Weimutov pine "Minimus". Another of the dwarf representatives of this plant. The diameter of the crown is 1-1.5 m, the height is only 0.8-1 m. The needles are medium in length, bluish-green, soft, gathering in bundles of five pieces. Shoots are short but thick.
This type of pine is ideal for small areas, and therefore looks on an alpine hill.
Used as a solitary plant and to create coniferous groups.
Unpretentious to the soil, but still gives preference to nutritious and moist soil. Like any coniferous plant tolerates frosts.
- Weymouth pine "Pendula" is a weeping pine, which is a very unusual and decorative look. It is a coniferous tree with twisted, long branches stretching to the ground. It reaches a height of 4 m. The crown diameter of a species always exceeds its height. The tree grows quite quickly - 18-20 cm of annual growth. The shape of the crown is asymmetric, conical. The needles consist of thin needles of bluish-green color, which are collected in bundles of five needles.
The pine cones are long, light brown in color, only occasionally having a gray or purple hue.
The view "Pendula" loves areas well-lit by sunlight, drained soil with an alkaline or acid reaction, and therefore grows well on sandy loam or loam. It tolerates drought very poorly, but also tolerates frosts, like other species.
This unusual, but very decorative shrub is often used to decorate garden park areas, recreation places, and personal plots. Also, the pine will look great in a rocky or heather garden.
- Weymouth pine "Blue Sheg" is a dwarf, but very fast-growing variety of weymouth pine. Has a spherical cone in shape, the diameter of which is 1.5 meters, and the height of the plant is 1.2 m.
The needles are blue-green, soft, thin, needles are gathered in bundles. It grows in sunny places, is excellent for drained soil. It does not tolerate drought, resistant to frost.
This is a very beautiful tree, which is perfect as a container culture for decorating a small alpine or rocky garden, for organizing various compositions in small areas.
- Weimutov pine "Fastigiata" is an evergreen tree equipped with a columnar crown. In older plants, the crown becomes sprawling. This species is distinguished by its growth rate, whose annual growth is 30 cm, and sometimes 50 cm.
An adult tree grows up to 10-15 m in height, 1.5-2 m in width. Its shoots are stiff, directed upwards. The needles are straight or slightly twisted, dark green in color, the cones are gray-brown.
This species of Weymouth pine is undemanding to soil; it grows on both dry and fresh soils. He loves both acidic and alkaline soils. The only prerequisite is excellent drainage.
He loves the sun very much, not tolerating the shadow. This factor should be taken into account when choosing a place for planting Weymouth pine on its site. Resistant to many diseases and various pests. It adapts well to urban conditions, often used for planting in gardens and parks.
Weymouth pine: reproduction
This pine is bred in two ways: by seed and grafting. In this case, the cuttings are not used, since the cuttings practically do not take root. Vaccination is used to grow varietal and highly decorative forms, and seed propagation is the simplest and most used, and, by the way, the cheapest. Especially good results are achieved with preliminary stratification of the material.
Pine begins to bear fruit after 25 years, only in some cases a little earlier. It is easy to propagate by seeds, but this method is used only for growing the main species, since it is very unlikely that all varietal and species characteristics of the plant will be preserved. Seed germination lasts 1-2 years if the seeds are stored at room temperature, and about 15 years if stored in airtight packaging at 0-5 degrees.
When propagating a pine tree, one must take into account that the embryo is sleeping, and cannot germinate immediately. For its "awakening" the influence of low temperatures is necessary. To do this, sow the seeds before winter in the ground to a depth of 1.5-2 cm. You can use the snowing of the crops in a container or box until spring.
If this method is used, then the seeds undergo a stratification procedure for 4-5 months, while the temperature should be + 3-5 degrees. For the germination of such material requires the use of a mixture of sand, peat and Sheet earth (1: 1: 3). Germination itself is carried out at a temperature of + 18-22 ° C. Watering should be moderate. Seedlings are transplanted into the ground very easily, and carry this process also quietly.
Another way of planting Weymouth pine is to purchase seedlings that are found on sale in containers or pots. Sometimes there are even trees with an already developed root system, which is wrapped in matter. This option is also valid. The main thing is that there is a moist earthen lump, and the needles have an intense color. It is worthwhile to pay attention to the area from which the seedlings were imported to be sure that they are adapted to the climatic conditions of your region.
Weymouth pine: leaving
Most of the species of this plant are not particularly demanding on care, while they are quite resistant to a variety of diseases, as well as pests. Mature trees also have good drought tolerance, but young trees still need additional watering. It should be remembered that the plant does not tolerate stagnation of water and salinization of the soil, so that watering is good in moderation. In order for young pines to easily survive the winter, 3-4 irrigation of 10-15 liters of water is required. To prevent compaction of the earth, it is necessary to loosen it from time to time, while not forgetting to mulch the soil every autumn. This approach also allows you to slightly smooth out temperature differences in the winter. It is better to make mulch from peat, chopped sawdust, bark, humus or wood chips and lay it in a layer 10-15 cm thick. In addition, mulch will be an excellent source of additional nutrition for the plant.
Conifers are very well related to top dressing, which must be carried out when planting seedlings. Humus is introduced into the soil, or 40-50 gammofammoski. The next 2 years, you can use for feeding special complex fertilizers created specifically for conifers.
But this is optional. The older the trees, the less they need to be fed, and more attention is paid to the optimal level of soil moisture.
To slow down the growth of branches and create a dense crown near the tree, sometimes part of the annual shoots is pinched in the spring. You can also form a crown with the help of spring breaking out of growth buds or shortening shoots in summer.
Weimuth trees are resistant to diseases, but they do not resist rust well (rust mushroom).
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That is why it is not recommended to plant currants, gooseberries, hawthorn or mountain ash next to a pine tree, which are recognized as carriers of this disease. If you find bright orange pads, you should immediately treat with Rogor or Bordeaux liquid three times.
Sometimes young seedlings are attacked by shute - a disease when the needles turn yellow and fall off. To prevent this situation, it is necessary to carry out prophylaxis - to feed seedlings with organic fertilizer, as well as to water. Fallen needles should be removed. If, nevertheless, the tree becomes sick, then it should be treated with a solution of colloidal sulfur (2%) or Bordeaux liquid.
It should be remembered that conifers do not immediately give out that they are susceptible to disease, therefore, it is necessary to conduct a thorough inspection from time to time for the presence of pests or signs of disease.
It can be noted that the Weimouth pines are perfectly adapted to urban conditions, well tolerate the smoke and gas contamination of the air.
Weymouth pine, like other conifers, tolerate even severe frosty winters. But all even young plantings are recommended for this time to cover with burlap or other material, protecting them not from the cold, but from the sun. This is due to the fact that pines often suffer from sunburn in February-March, especially in snowless winters. In April, after reducing the risk of a tree getting a burn, the covering material can be removed.