It’s quite possible for everyone that is familiar and so common in our kitchen to grow onions in a summer cottage and create for themselves a supply of this necessary product. If, of course, you know the rules of cultivation, and only such knowledge will help to get a good harvest from your own plot.
General conditions for growing onions
Onions belong to cold-resistant crops, a comfortable temperature for it is 12-16 degrees Celsius, a temperature of 4-5 ° is sufficient for seed germination. Adult bulbs can tolerate five to six degrees of frost without damage. Moreover, acute varieties are distinguished by greater frost resistance, for sweet three or four degree frost is already a threat.
In the first 2/3 of the development period, the culture needs regular watering, and in the last third it is recommended to slightly dry the soil. The need for sunlight for onions is higher than for most root crops or cabbage. Soil requirements are also quite high, soils with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction are better.
Fertile soil and weeds are two factors to consider when growing onions. A plot for it is not suitable for anyone. It is advisable that it be located high, snow cover and excess moisture would leave it early. Light soils with a neutral reaction - this is what suits onions. On acidic and dense soils, getting a good crop will be very difficult. The soil should contain the required amount of nutrients peri while the absence of weed seeds. Good predecessors are cucumbers, potatoes, which are fertilized with manure.
The onion itself reacts negatively to fresh manure, it can become sick and not mature. In addition, manure usually contains a lot of weeds, which are fatal to the fetus. It is recommended to apply humus of the order of 2-3 kg per square meter. m., superphosphate approx. 20-30 g, ammonium nitrate (10-12 g), and potassium salt (approx. 15 g) will also damage.
Prepare the soil for onions immediately after harvesting the predecessor plant. To begin with, loosen the soil 4-6 cm deep (a measure against weeds). After a couple of weeks, but usually no later than September 15-20, superphosphate is introduced and the site is dug up to the depth of the shovel bayonet.
Onions are planted early, so at the beginning of spring, as soon as the snow has melted and it is possible to cultivate the land, they begin to spread humus on the site and form ridges. recommends making a ridge sheet of 1 m, and a furrow of 40 cm wide. Moreover, in areas located higher, the ridges can be made lower (15 cm), and in low places the height of the ridge can be increased to 25 cm. Well-shredded fertilizers (nitrogen, potassium) are poured on top of the ridge and sealed with a rake in the soil. After such preparation, you can proceed to the landing.
Growing onions is possible in several ways. In one year - by sowing seeds and transplanting seedlings, in two years - by planting seed.
Growing onions by sowing seeds
So that the onion has time to ripen, sowing must begin at the end of April or sow before winter. To get a good harvest, you must first sort the punctured seeds from full-weight ones, for which it is convenient to use a suitable sieve size, or do everything manually.
Corneal seeds swell and germinate more slowly. Seedlings of seeds sown without soaking should be expected no earlier than after 3 weeks. To reduce this time, different methods are used. One of them is the soaking of seeds in an aqueous solution of methylene blue (0.3 g / 1 l). Promotes better germination and 0.1 g of potassium permanganate, diluted in a liter of water. A week before the planned sowing date, the seeds are soaked for a day in a glass container. They will absorb the solution, so it must be added, but so that it does not cover the seeds with more than a one-centimeter layer. The container with seeds in the solution must be kept at a temperature of 20-25 degrees. Swollen seeds are laid out on burlap, trying not to make a thick layer, another section of burlap is superimposed on top. Now you need to wait until the sprouts hatch, while the seeds must remain moist.
Sometimes it turns out that the seeds have already begun to hatch and are ready for sowing, and for some reason the plot is not ready. In this case, the seeds are placed on the glacier until the day of sowing. Before sowing the seeds can be dried a little.
Sow onions on a flat ridge, in which they make a rake with a groove of 5 grooves, leaving between them 20 cm of land. A board (plank) should slightly compact the soil at the bottom of each furrow and sow the seeds. The average consumption of dry seeds is -1 g per 2 meters of the ridge.
The average depth of seed laying is 2-3 cm, changing downwards on the lungs and upwards on heavy soils. It is good to mulch the grooves later, for which peat or humus are suitable. Mulching will not allow the soil crust to form after precipitation, and the seedlings will be more friendly.
For winter sowing, ridges begin to be done immediately after digging the ground in the fall. Aligning and marking the ridges, they await the onset of cold weather. Sowing of seeds is carried out before cooling. Healthy large seeds are selected for sowing, always dry. Close into the ground by 1.5 cm, you must certainly mulch. The seeds in the earth will swell due to moisture accumulated during the fall, but, in theory, should not germinate. With the onset of spring, the upper layers of the earth will thaw, and the seeds will begin to germinate, which already occurs at 3-4 degrees Celsius. Thus, by the time they begin to prepare the soil, onion seeds will have time to sprout.
Almost from the beginning of planting, the plant needs careful care. It is required to prevent the emergence of soil crust and to timely remove emerging weeds. For this purpose, it is necessary to regularly loosen the earth with a rake until the first seedlings appear, and after the appearance, loosen it by holding a special toothed cat in the aisles. Loosening is necessary, penetrating the ground by 5-6 cm.
Less effort to control weeds will go if the soil is loosened, while the weed shoots are reddish and not very noticeable. In this phase, branched roots have not yet had time to appear, and even a small impact can destroy them. Loosen the soil quite often, preferably 2-3 times a month. Loosening after the rain on the eve of the day is especially useful, as it helps to preserve moisture in the soil. An important point: the onion will stop growing if it is heavily covered with soil, so try to move the soil away from the sprouts.
A couple of times you can feed plantings with fertilizers - in May, add nitrogen fertilizers (10-15 g / 2 meters of the ridge) or slurry (in the ratio of 1 to 6 with water). After three weeks after the first top dressing, we carry out the second: we re-add ammonium nitrate and potassium salt (in dry or dissolved form).
In dry May, June and the first half of July, onions need watering to stimulate growth. In July, thinning is carried out and cleaning is started at the same time. First, every second plant is removed, after the second and fourth rows you can completely remove, so that only three rows will remain on the ridge, on which the onion will reach full maturity.
By the end of July, watering should be stopped, in August the tips of the feathers will already begin to dry out and the plants can be gently tucked up, thereby tearing part of the roots from the soil, which will help to ripen the bulbs better. Fallen feathers will tell you that it is time to remove the crop. Harvested onions must be dried. After a week, the feather will completely dry out, then it is crushed and removed from the bulb. Fruits with a thick neck are better to start eating immediately, as they quickly deteriorate. Matured bulbs should be dried: first 5-7 days at a pace. 20-25 degrees, and then another week at 30-35 degrees. The room where the drying is carried out should be well ventilated. Dried bulbs are suspended for better preservation.
By seedling method, certain, mainly low-graded onion varieties are better grown - Danilovsky 301, Siberian annual, Kaaba and some others. The advantage of the method is improved yield compared to the seed method
For growing seedlings on individual farms, greenhouses or ordinary boxes of land are usually used. For seedlings, sowing onions is recommended in the period from March 10 to March 20. A warm greenhouse is prepared for sowing as usual, the soil must be leveled and marked with a bar marker. Between the rows leave 5-6 cm. The sowing rate is 20 g / 1.5 square meters. m (1 frame). On top of the seeds put a layer of earth 1 cm thick. By the way, it is better to prepare seeds by the methods described earlier in the article. After planting, it is not worth watering the ground so as not to cool the greenhouse.
Until shoots appear, the temperature in the greenhouse must be maintained at 20 degrees. To make this easier to do, it is recommended to insulate the greenhouse from the outside with manure and carefully close all the frames, use mats so that not even the slightest gaps remain.
Shoots appear on the fifth or eighth day, immediately you need to remove the mats from the frames, so that in the daytime the light gets inside. For several days, the temperature is reduced to 10-11 degrees, then maintained at 11-19 degrees. 14-21 days before disembarkation in open ground, the temperature in the greenhouse is gradually reduced so that it is equal to the temperature of the ground.
They feed 2 times - on the 20th day after germination and another 14 days. Recommended fertilizers are ammonium nitrate (20-30 g), potassium salt (10-14 g), superphosphates (30-50 g). Fertilizers are bred in a watering can with a volume of 5-10 liters, this amount is enough for 2 frames of the greenhouse. In the process of feeding, spray of the solution falls on the leaves. It must be washed off, pouring from a watering can with clean water. The second time, 1.5-2 times more fertilizer is applied. Other care does not differ from that used in the method of breeding by seeds: moderate watering, regular cultivation, elimination of weeds.
Seedlings with three to four leaves are transferred to the ground in mid-May. A good measure is to cut the leaves of seedlings before planting by about 1/3, so that less water evaporates during the adaptation of the plant to the soil. It is advisable to do this procedure ahead of time, three to four days before disembarkation, so that the sections heal.
It is necessary to plant on the ridge in rows, row spacing of 20 cm, the gap between plants in the same row should be 4-6 cm. Care similar to that recommended when growing from seeds.
Growing from Sevka (two-year method)
Perhaps this method is the best, if you set the goal to get a crop of well-ripened onions. Applies to sharp and semi-sharp varieties such as Strigunovsky. Pogarsky, Vishensky, Arzamassky, etc.
Growing in the first year
In the first year, a small bulb is grown with a head diameter of 0.5-3 cm, called sevc. The land under the north is allocated fertile, free of weeds. Sowing is done in late April, that is, pretty early. It is worth preparing the seeds by soaking them in water or, which will be even more effective, in a solution of methylene blue. Soaking technologies we considered above. Then 3-4 days are spent on germination, after which the seeds that are bent are placed on a glacier, where they hold for about 2 weeks before sowing.
The soil for sowing should be well moistened. To obtain high-quality seed sowing, the method of thickened sowing is used - 10 g of seeds per 1 sq. m., row-spacings are made of 10 -15 cm. The seeds are touched by 1.5 - 2 cm, if they are planted deeper, the germination will proceed at a slower pace and not so amicably.
Caring for onion sets does not differ in originality, mainly the same as with annual cultivation. Three months later, the sevoc matures. Cleaning usually occurs in mid-August. In principle, earlier ripening improves the conditions for drying, ripening and storage. With a square meter, you can easily collect 1 kg of seed.
The pulled onion is laid out right on the ridge and dried for 4-5 days. On rainy days, the fruits are transferred under the protection of the canopy. From time to time, the seeds are turned over to dry evenly.
The next drying period is already carried out indoors and lasts 2 weeks. Sevok matures during this time. The dried feather with roots is crushed, diseased or damaged bulbs are removed.
Immediately before packing for storage, the onions need to be warmed up for 8 hours (at a temp. 35-40 degrees), then the small, medium and large sets must be sorted separately. The largest onion samples are selected separately (up to 4 cm across), which can be used as planting material for forcing a green feather.
Storage of onion sets
Sevka is best stored in a suspended bag, or in a basket. In the room where the vegetable is stored, the temperature should be 1-2 degrees above zero, This is with regard to the storage conditions of small sets. By the way, he is not afraid of short-term temperature increases of five to six degrees.
Storage of large and medium sets requires maintaining the temperature in 15-18 degrees and above.
Second year of culture
For the second year of cultivation, it will also be necessary to qualitatively prepare the soil - well-fertilized humus or compost (4-5 kg / sq. M) as well as mineral fertilizers (up to 70 g / sq. M) or wood ash (150 g / sq. M).
Landing begins in the first decade of May. Plants are planted, leaving 6-8 cm between adjacent in a row, row spacings of 25-30 cm are made. Seeding depth is very important - it is recommended to cover the seeds with a layer of soil 1-1.5 cm. After a week (or even a day or two earlier ) shoots will appear. The soil must immediately be loosened and then repeat this procedure 2-3 times a month. An interesting and useful article will be about Rocambole garlic onion.
Planting onion sevka (video)
This is loosening, pulling weeds, fertilizing (2 times) and watering on dry days. Having noticed the arrows on the bow, they should be removed immediately. Correctly remove the arrow below the swelling above the neck, then new arrows will not appear here.
A large sowing in quantity gives the best crop, but the quality suffers from many small bulbs. But from small seeds in the nests, 1-2 large bulbs are formed.
Harvesting is usually started in late August, when up to 2/3 of the plants are already ripe. It is not advisable to start harvesting later, since, if frozen, the onions will lose their ability to store for a long time, and because of the autumn rains, roots may reappear, and such onions will also not last long.
Harvested onions are dried, the stages of which do not differ from drying onion sets. Then the crop is woven into braids and placed in a dry room.