Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) - a plant with a pleasant aroma and presented in various varieties and forms. The culture is thermophilic, its fruits are of great nutritional value.
In the process of evolution, apricot acquired a number of biological features. The culture is light and heat-loving, which means that with rare plantings it will grow poorly, and the lower branches will dry out. Strong thickening should not be allowed, otherwise there will be a chance of infection with fungal diseases.
In nature, apricot grows in the mountains. That is why it is not demanding on the type of soil, but needs good air exchange. The culture is resistant to soil salinization. The fruiting of the plant occurs on the 4th year. The culture is self-and cross-pollinated.
There are many varieties of apricot, with their own advantages and disadvantages. Consider the main varieties of plants.
Early ripe varieties
Early ripening varieties ripen in late June. They are characterized by attractive appearance and good taste of the fruit. Plants are undemanding to care and ambient temperature.
|Grade name||Key Features||Fruit Characteristics||Resistance to disease and weather|
|Badem Eric||Early Armenian variety, fruiting for the 5th year||The taste is satisfactory, the fruits are large, almond-shaped, yellow||Low resistance to frost and disease|
|"Nakhichevan Red" (Nakhichevanskii)||Fruits in the 3rd year, early flowering||Fruits do not tolerate drying and transportation, medium, yellow-orange, juicy||Weak resistance to gray rot|
|"Early Melitopol" (Melitopolskijj)||Crown cone-shaped, tall tree, requires timely pruning||Large, oval, yellow-orange||It tolerates winter well, is resistant to disease|
|"Alliance"||The variety gives a good harvest, universal in application||Oblong fruits weighing up to 55 grams, yellow, sour taste||Winter hardiness is high|
|Alesha||The crown is round, the height of the tree is up to 4 meters, the apricot gives a good harvest||Medium fruits, slightly flattened, with dots||Tolerates winter well|
|"Leskore" (Leskore)||Tall and massive tree, crown in the form of an inverted pyramid||Fragrant and delicious||Suffering from Moniliosis|
|"Veteran of Sevastopol" (Veteran Sevastopolja)||Viable grade with good yields||Fruits are large - up to 85 grams, golden pink||Tolerates frost well|
Mid-ripening varieties ripen in July. In most of them, the fruits are universal in use, the harvest from the trees is mostly annual. The resistance of the varieties to low temperatures is good.
|Grade name||Key Features|
|Resistance to disease and weather|
|Olympus (Olimp)||The variety quickly ripens and tolerates transportation, storage of fruits is long||Bumpy, weighs about 70 grams, orange-pink, sweet and sour||Not afraid of heat and drought, disease resistance is not bad|
|Altair||The tree gives a harvest every year, the use of fruits is universal||Rounded, weighing 55 grams, orange||Excellent disease resistance|
|The Red-Cheeked (Krasnoshekijj)||Ripens in late July, the tree is tall, fruiting in the 3rd year||Fruit weight up to 50 grams, golden color, sweet taste||Tolerates winter and drought well|
|Pineapple (Ananasnyj)||Crohn rounded, sparse, regular fruiting||Fruits weighing up to 50 grams, orange blossom, medium juiciness||Disease resistant, frost resistant|
|"Dessert"||Ripens in mid-June, lush crown, tree height 5 meters||The fruits are medium, yellowish, sweet and sour||Winter hardiness is excellent|
|Goldrich (Goldrich)||The variety is characterized by high productivity, tolerates transportation well.||Fruits are large - weighing 90 grams, oval, orange||Winter hardiness is average|
|"Shalah" (Shalah)||Gives fruit for the 4th year, high productivity, plentiful flowering||Fruit weight up to 65 grams, sweet taste, velvet peel||At temperatures up to|
-19 degrees does not freeze
Late ripening varieties
Late-ripening varieties ripen in late summer. In spring, plants do not suffer from frost, and the fruits are well stored at low temperatures.
|Grade name||Key Features||Fruit Characteristics||Resistance to disease and weather|
|Favorite (Favorit)||The height of the tree reaches 4 meters, the flowers are white||Fruits up to 35 grams, round, orange, juicy||Excellent frost resistance|
|Peyvast||Reproduction is carried out by grafting and seeds, bears fruit in the 4th year of life||The fruits are large, good yield||High disease resistance|
|"Late canning" (Pozdnyi konservnyii)||Productivity is high, the variety does not require careful maintenance, tolerates transportation well||Beautiful, large fruits of golden color||Medium disease resistance|
|"Kursadyk"||Fruits in the 4th year, the crop is regular||The fruits are often used in dried form, medium size, oval shape||Resistance to fungi|
|Late Red-Cheeked (Pozdnyi Krasnoshekijj)||Productivity is high, self-fertile, average tree height||Large, rounded, light orange, sweet||Medium disease resistance|
|Isfarak||Dried fruit variety, ripening later, often fruits are processed on dried apricots||Rounded, yellowish||Medium Disease Resistance|
|Iskra||The tree can reach a height of 4 meters, the flowers are white||Fruits weighing up to 30 grams, juicy, stored well||Not susceptible to disease, withstands frosts down to -36 degrees|
In the northern areas, it is recommended to plant apricot in the spring, in the southern - in the fall. As a material, it is better to use a seedling from the nursery, as it will take root well. The place is selected based on the following criteria:
- good lighting;
- wind protection;
- lack of cold air.
Soil must be produced. Landing is carried out to a depth of about 60 centimeters. The best option is to place the apricot in light loamy soil.
Apricot: planting and care
How to care
Apricot can not be called a frost-resistant plant. But some of its varieties can withstand frosts to -38 degrees. It is important that the plant is not affected by sudden changes in temperature, since the root of the neck is weak.
To fertilize apricot should be at the end of the dormant period. If the soil is poor, it is worth enriching it with humus. In the spring, organic matter and nitrogen substances are introduced.
It is important to feed potassium in a timely manner. If the element does not come to the apricot in the right amount, the plant will begin to age quickly and will soon die. A good option is the introduction of complex fertilizers containing boron, manganese and potassium.
How to water
Watering apricot in the middle latitudes should be regular. If the plant does not have enough water in early summer, the buds will not form, which means that there will be no crop. From the second half of summer, watering is carried out sparingly - in the dry season. Excessive moisture will result in prolonged shoot growth.
Basic pruning rules
Apricot fruiting is carried out on annual growths, bouquet branches and spurs. Over time, skeletal branches begin to become bare, resulting in reduced yield. Since the kidneys are mainly located on annual shoots, apricot pruning should be done in a timely manner in order to create new branches. The trimming time is the end of May - the beginning of June.
What to make a tree grow better? Follow the basic rules of its cultivation.
- The variety must be selected based on the region where you live.
- It is better to choose an already grown young tree. Growing from seeds will take a long time.
- For a small plot, it is better to choose a dwarf tree.
- When purchasing a seedling with an open root system, it is worth choosing a two-year plant.
- Choose a warm place for the apricot, protected from the wind. It is best to plant it against the wall.
- Do not plant pepper, strawberries and eggplant near the crop - they are sources of verticillum wilting.
With early snowfall, the apricot root neck may vanish. To prevent aging, periodically remove snow from the trunk circle. After the soil freezes, the trunk circle, on the contrary, is covered with snow, while the root neck should remain uncovered.
A good effect is obtained by whitewashing lime and clay boles and skeletal branches. Whitewash the plants in the fall. If the tree has frostbitten areas, they are treated with a solution of iron sulfate.
Apricot Sap Prevention
In winter, apricot branches may dry out under the influence of wind. As a result, the buds may not bloom, and the branches will begin to die. To prevent the problem, snow retainers should be placed near the plant in winter, plant varieties resistant to wind, and irrigated in autumn. If the apricot has affected branches, they should be pruned, but only after the onset of the tree growth stage.
Apricot propagation methods
As a rule, apricot propagation is carried out vegetatively. Seedlings of winter-hardy small-fruited apricot varieties are taken as rootstocks. Cherry plum should not be taken as a stock.
Rootstocks are grown from seeds taken from healthy fruits. Seeds must be stratified, and they are sown in early spring. Grow stocks will be 2 years.
An important stage in the propagation of apricot is budding. It is a vaccination with a wintering kidney with a small patch of tissue - the shield. They carry out budding in July. The height of the budding is 4 centimeters above the ground.
So that stocks do not freeze in winter, they are tied with paper. In the spring, using a secateurs, a part of the stocks is cut above the ground and the strapping is removed. Even one-year-old seedlings are suitable for planting in the garden, but it is recommended to choose two-year-old planting material, as it takes root more quickly.
Diseases and pests of apricot
Apricot is often exposed to infections and pests. And, if you do not save him on time, you can lose the crop. The right approach is the timely implementation of preventive measures that will prevent the plant from getting sick.
How to recognize and fight diseases
Often apricot suffers from damage to fruits, leaves and skeletal branches. Of the diseases, he may appear cytosporosis, moniliosis, bacterial cancer and other ailments. How to recognize and cure them, the table will tell.
|Disease name||Main signs||Treatment methods|
|Verticillium (Verticillium)||Branches begin to fade, leaves turn yellow and crumble. The disease often affects young plants.||Affected branches are removed, soil waterlogging should not be allowed and large doses of nitrogen fertilizers should not be applied|
|Necrotic spotting||Viral disease that prevents the fruits from forming correctly; gum forms on the trunk|
Only healthy planting material must be used.
|Curl of leaves (Taphrina deformans var. Armeniaca)||Fungal disease characterized by twisted shoots and leaf deformation||Copper Spraying|
|Brown Spotting (Septoria pallens Sacc)||The fruits, leaves and shoots are affected. Yellow spots appear on the leaves, then the leaves dry out and curl.||Removal of affected leaves, spraying with Bordeaux fluid|
|Infectious Shrinkage (Cytospora leucostoma)||Accompanied by peeling and dying off of the bark of branches||It is necessary to remove damaged branches, spray the tree with Bordeaux liquid, carry out disinfection with lime|
|Moniliosis (Monilia)||Causes death of fruits and flowers; healthy fruits become infected from diseased fruits||Collection and destruction of infected fruits, spraying with Bordeaux liquid.|
|Kleasterosporiosis (Clasterosporium carpoplilum Aderh.)||The buds, fruits and leaves are affected. Reddish spots form on them.|
Bordeaux fluid is sprayed with kidneys in spring
How to get rid of pests
The main pests of apricots are: codling moth (Grapholita funebrana)leaflet (Tortricidae or Olethreutidae) and aphids (Aphidinea). Caterpillars of the codling moth spoil the fruit. In preparation for winter, they weave cocoons and attach to the plant. Leafworm caterpillars eat foliage and buds. Aphids feed on leaf juice.
You can get rid of pests by using insecticides. Bring out aphids will get tincture of garlic. Moths are afraid of a mixture of a solution of entobacterin and chlorophos. The leafworm will go away if the tree trunk is whitewashed.
Compliance with the following measures will help prevent the emergence of pests:
- It is necessary to timely remove the diseased parts of the plant.
- Collect fallen fruits and destroy them.
- If necessary, wood is treated with lime.
- In autumn, the tree trunk should be protected from sunburn.
- It is necessary to comply with all the rules of agricultural technology.
How to prune apricots in spring
Proper apricot cultivation begins with the right choice of seedling or seed. An important role for the cultivation of a tree is played by its location, watering, pruning and fertilizing. To get a good harvest, you will have to make a lot of effort, but the result is worth it.